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Full text of "The teacher's handbook of the tonic solfa system; a guide to the teaching of singing in schools by the tonic sol-fa system"




eacher's Hand Book, 



TONIO SOL-FA SYSTEM 



MUSIC. 





'1 






, 




THE 



TEACHER'S HANDBOOK 



OF THE 



TONIC SOL-FA SYSTEM. 



A GUIDE TO THE TEACHING OF SINGING IN SCHOOLS 
BY THE TONIC SOL-FA SYSTEM. 



BY 

ALEXANDER T. CRINGAN, 
/>/ 

Graduate and Licentiate of the Tonic Sol-Fa College, London, England. 
Superintendent of Music in Toronto Public Schools. 

FACULTY OF MUSIC 

(0,0 IA 

&n GF TOROOT9 



TORONTO : 
CANADA PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

(LIMITED). 



nr 

ZO 
C7 




Entered, according to Act of Parliament, in the Office of the Minister of Agricul- 
ture, in the year 1889, by THE CANADA PUBLISHING COMPANY (LIMITED). 



PREFACE. 



importance of the study of Music is now 
J[ freely recognized, and in numerous Towns and 
Cities it is placed, as a regular subject, upon the 
curriculum. Progressive teachers throughout the 
Dominion are now fully alive to the beneficial effects 
of the study of Music as a refining, moral influence 
in the schoolroom and the home. Many teachers 
are earnestly investigating the various " systems " of 
teaching music, and the majority of those have 
decided in favor of the Tonic Sol-fa System as being 
based on true philosophical principles of teaching, 
such as are now employed in teaching all other 
subjects. This system is not, as many suppose, a 
new system, having been before the public for 
upwards of forty years. In England, it has had to 
contend with most fierce and prejudiced opposition, 
which it has gradually overcome by its intrinsic merit, 
until now it is approved by the leading Musicians 
and Educators, and is used in ninety per cent, of the 
schools which succeed in passing the Government 
Examination in Music. In Canada, it has met with 
the same opposition and suspicion, but as its merits 



as a system have become known, this has gradually 
been disarmed, until now it has been adopted by 
the Educational authorities of the leading Cities and 
Towns of the Dominion. 

Improved teaching can only be looked for through 
an improved knowledge of the subject, and increased 
skill in the methods of teaching by the regular 
teachers. The object of this work is to aid the 
teacher in presenting the subject in a manner which 
will make the study a source of pleasure and profit 
to teacher and pupil alike. The author offers his 
experience in the hope that it may lighten the 
labours of his co-workers in a great and good cause. 

The plan of this work deals in detail with each 
branch of the subject, and explains, by means of 
Specimen Lessons and appropriate suggestions, the 
simplest and most practical methods of application. 
A number of exercises are given in each department, 
which, although, insufficient in themselves, will enable 
the teacher to prepare others as may be deemed 
necessary. 

ALEX. T. CRINGAN. 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Accents 17, 35 

Action Songs 60 

Beating time 40, 42 

Breathing 20,133 

Beginning to teach 10 

Calisthenics 62 

Chromatics 155 

Chordal treatment 16, 178 

Colors 34, 96, 98 

Continuations 45 

Division of Lesson 13 

Ear Exercises, 52, 101, 119, 124, 130, 162 

Expression 108 

Expression Marks 186 

Eye-Training 32 

Finger Signs 7 

Interesting Devices 103 

Instrumental aid 56 

Manual Signs 6, 15 

Marks 65 

Measure 17, 37 

Metronome 40 

Minor Mode 149 

Modulator 67, 112, 139, 148 

Modulator Drill, 25, 79, 90, 112, 121, 128 

Morning and Evening 106 

Patterning 13 

Pitching Keys 138 

Postition, Best for singing n 

Principles of the System 14 

Pulses 17, 46 



PAGE 

Registers, The 22 

Rests, silences 45, 118 

Rote Songs, 60 

Running in grooves 27 

School Songs 57, 106,131 

Singing softly u 

" with pupils 12 

" at sight, ...31, 80, 97, 114, 123, 129 

" from books 122 

Specimen Lessons : 

On Doh, Me, Soh 68 

" Time 74, 77, 85 

" Octaves 87 

' Te and Ray 88 

" Ear Exercises 102 

" Teaching Songs 107 

" Transition 140 

" Stafif Notation 167 

Staff Notation, Explanation of 166 

Syllabus for Graded Schools ...63, 134 

Syncopation 161 

Time, Hints on, 31, 80, 97, 114, 123, 158 

" Chart 8 

Time-Names 46 

" Signatures 172 

Transition 137, 183 

Unexpected in teaching 82 

Vocalising 28 

Voice, The ... .. 20 



" Training 109, 125, 132 

Writing on black-board 36 



MANUAL SIGNS OF TONES IN KEY. 



As seen from the left of the teacher, not as seen from the front. Teachers 
should particularly notice this. 




SOH, 

The GRAND or bright tone. 



TE, 

The PIERCING or sensitive tone. 




FAH. . 

The DESOLATE or awe-inspiring tone. 




LAH, 

The SAD or 
weeping tone. 



DOH. 

The STRONG arjirttt tone. 



RAY, 

The ROUSING or hopeful tone. 



NOTE. "These proximate verbal descriptions of mental' effect are only true of 
the tones of the scale when sung slowly when the ear is filled with the key, and 
when the effect is not modified by harmony." 



FINGER-SIGNS FOR TIME. 

As seen from the Teacher's point of view, the back of the 
hand being shown to the pupils. 




-AATAI 



NOTE." These Signs are generally given with the left hand to distinguish them from the 
Hand-signs, which are given with the right. The back of the hand is toward the pupils, 
so that the thumb may not be seen, for we never divide the pulse into five equal parts. 
Some Teachers find a difficulty in dividing and joining their fingers quickly enough. 
To them it will be of great assistance to use the fingers of the right hand inside the 
held-up left hand, for the purpose of placing and keeping the left-hand fingers as they 
would wish. Teachers reserve their right-hand for beating time ; sometimes tapping the 
pulses on the top of the left-hand (which is held still), and sometimes beating time in the 
regular way close by. The wood-cuts are from the Teacher's point of view, not from 
the side seen by the pupils." 



8 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

TONIC SOL-FA TIME CHABT, 



BY JOHN CURWEN. 



WHOLES. HALVES. QUARTERS. THIRDS. 


:1 


:1 ,1 1 ,1 


=1 4 .1 


TAA 


tafatefe 


taataitee. 


B 
O 


:1 .1 ,1 


=1 - ,1 


-AA 


TAAtefe 


taa-aitee 





:1 .,1 


:1 ,1 r 


SAA 


TAA-fe 


taatai-ee 


:1 .1 


:1 ,1 .1 


: 4 4 


TAATAI 


tafaTAI 


saataitee 


:- .1 


: ,1 .1 ,1 


.1 

1 ^ ^ 


-AATAI 


safatefe 


taa-aise? 


: .1 


:1 ,1 .1 , 


=1 , , 


SAATAI 


tafatese 


taasat-ee 


:1 


:1 . ,1 


:1 t <l 


TAAS.4I 


TAAsefe 


taasaitee 



EIGHTHS. 

:1 1 ,1 1 .1 1 ,1 1 

tanafanatenefene 

> 

NINTHS. 
333 

:1 1 1 J 1 1 J 1 1 

taralatereletirili 



SIXTHS (THREE ACCENTS). 

:1 1 <1 1 J 1 

tafatefetifl 

SIXTHS (Two ACCENTS). 
3 3 

:1 1 1 .1 1 1 

taralaterele 



[NoiE. "Ai" is pronounced as in maid, fail, etc. "Aa " is 
pronounced as in father, " a " as in mad, " e " as in led, and " i " 
as in lid. These time-names are copied from M. Paris's " Langue 
des durees." The minute divisions are seldom used except in 
Instrumental Music] . 



HOW TO TEACH 

THE 

TONIC SOL-FA SYSTEM OF MUSIC- 



PART FIRST. 

CHAPTER I. 

THE STEPS OF THE SYSTEM. 

SINCE the introduction of the Tonic Sol-fa system, 
many teachers have adopted the notation, but have 
not taken sufficient pains to inform themselves of the 
grading of the various steps, or the methods of pre- 
sentation which are peculiar to the system. As a 
natural consequence, their teaching has been of an 
irregular and haphazard description, which has too 
often, though unintentionally, been the means of 
bringing discredit on the system. " The easy before 
the difficult," " the simple before the compound," and 
" one thing at a time," are maxims with which every 
teacher is familiar, but their application to the teach- 
ing of music is still far from having become general. 

The Tonic Sol-fa system is based on the true prin- 
ciples of teaching, and the methods by which they 
are applied cannot fail to commend themselves to all 
practical teachers. In order to secure the best, possi- 
ble results, a careful adherence to the steps of the 
method is absolutely necessary. 



io THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

The system is divided into six steps. The two 
principal subjects, Time and Tune, are taught sepa- 
rately throughout The arrangement of the primary 
steps is as follows : 

FIRST STEP. 

TUNE. The DOH chord (d m s) with all octaves. 
TIME. Whole pulse tones, half pulse tones and prolonged 
tones, in two, three or four-pulse measure. 

SECOND STEP. 

TUNE. The SOH chord (s t r 1 ) with all octaves. 
TIME. Quarter pulse tones, pulse-and-half tones and silent 
pulses, in any measure. 

THIRD STEP. 

TUNE. The FAH chord (f 1 d 1 ) with all octaves. 
TIME. Combinations of half and quarter pulse tones, and 
silent half-pulses. 



CHAPTER II. 

GENERAL HINTS. 

I MANY excellent teachers have been 
deterred from attempting to teach 



music by the erroneous impression that only those 
who are naturally gifted with a good voice or a musi- 
cal temperament are qualified to teach music. Such, 
however, is fortunately far from being the case. On 
the contrary, teachers who are not so gifted, have a 
much better appreciation of the difficulties to be over- 
come by their pupils in learning to sing, and can 



GENERAL HINTS. II 

more readily lend assistance when necessary, than 
the more gifted teachers, who find no serious obstacles 
in their personal studies of music. Let the teacher, 
once master the first step and give the first lesson, 
and difficulties which formerly seemed insurmountable 
will gradually vanish, to be succeeded by wonder 
that a subject so full of pleasure and interest to 
teacher and pupils should have been so long neg- 
lected. " We learn to do by doing." Let the teacher 
keep this fact in mind and act upon it. Whenever 
a step has been mastered, let it be taught to a class, 
and confidence in teaching will soon follow. No one 
refrains from teaching drawing, saying, " I am not an 
artist," or from teaching reading, because he cannot 
claim to be an elocutionist, neither should any be 
deterred from teaching singing because he is not a 
musician. 

QUALITY OF TONE. 

All exercises should be sung with a 



rLY ' ' soft, pure tone of voice, and the ten- 



dency to anything approaching loud or harsh singing 
should be nipped in the bud. A soft pattern should 
be given by the teacher, and pupils encouraged to 
imitate it. Every music lesson should be commenced 
with exercises, in developing a good tone of voice 
This will be found to exert a beneficial influence 
throughout the entire lesson. See chapter on voicr 
training. - 

J 

BEST POSITION FOR SINGING. Jn 

This is undoubtedly standing erect, with thetme 



12 THE TEACHERS HANDBOOK. 



well kept up, but not thrown back, and the arms 
hanging easily by the sides. This is not always 
Conveniently attainable, owing to the 
construction of school desks, or nar- 



rowness of the aisles. The next best position is 
sitting erect with the hands hanging easily by the 
sides, or folded loosely and resting on the desks. 
The weight of the body must not be thrown on the 
hands while in the latter position. " Arms folded," 
AVOID " HANDS 1 or " nan< ^ s behirfd," should be avoided, 
BEHIND," as both tend to obstruct freedom of 



Do NOT SiNc WITH 
PUPILS. 



action of the organs of respiration, which is absolutely 
indispensable during singing. 

SINGING WITH PUPILS. 

There is always a strong tendency to sing with 
pupils whenever the slightest difficulty occurs, but 
this ought not to be indulged. Pupils may be " pulled 
through " in this manner, but the exercise will fail to 
be of the slightest educational value. 
No sensible teacher would, for a 
moment, attempt to teach a child to read by simply 
repeating the lesson with him. In teaching singing, 
the same laws should be observed as in teaching 
reading. The teacher should listen, until help is 
required, then sing while the pupil becomes the 

listener. . 

I 

thv LEARNING BY IMITATION. 

murhis is one of the most important features of 
comcTonic Sol-fa system. Theory and notation are 



GENERAL HINTS. 13 

kept in the back-ground as much as possible, while 
the thing, music, is studied from a pattern given 

I by the teacher. Pupils will readily 
AVOID BAD PATTERN, . .. , , , . , , 

I imitate whether the pattern be good 



or bad. Teachers should be careful to avoid defec- 
tive patterning, and should practise in private until 
sufficient control of voice has been obtained, to 
secure correctness in intonation and quality of tone 
in patterning exercises and phrases. 



DIVISION OF LESSON. 

It is impossible to lay down any definite rule 
regarding length or frequency of lessons. In this 
matter circumstances must decide what is most 
advisable. The plan of devoting all the available 
time to a single weekly lesson is not calculated 
to produce the best results. The lessons are too 
long to permit of the interest being kept awake, 
and the length of interval between lessons entails 
a strain on the minds of the pupils to remember 
what has been taught. Where it is possible, a short 
lesson should be given daily, but when this cannot 
be done an effort should be made to have the 
music lesson at least every alternate day. From 
twenty to thirty minutes daily is the average time 
that can be spared for music in the public schools. 
In order to make the most of the time, the lesson 
should be planned in advance and a specific time 



14 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK 

allotted to each subject. The following time-table 
has been put to a practical test and found to work 
satisfactorily : 

Voice-training, 3 minutes. 

Modulator drill - 5 " 

Sight-singing, - 3 

Time, - - y 

Ear-training, - 4 " 

Practice of pieces, - 8 " 

30 minutes. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE TONIC SOL-FA 
SYSTEM. 

MUSIC is broadly divided into two branches, viz. : 
Tune and Time. Each subject is taught separately, 
in accordance with the true principle of teaching " one 
thing at a time." 

TUNE. 

All .tones are studied in their relation 
to a governing tone or key-tone called 



the Tonic, irrespective of their position in the scale 



of abs '-lite pitch. Each tone of the scale has a dis- 



tinct character or mental effect by which it can be 



recognized in any key. The appreciation of mental 



effect is the most powerful aid to a 



clear conception of the tones of the 




scale, without which it is impossible to sing in tune. 



FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES. 15 

When a true conception of the mental effect of tones 
has been formed, the singer is enabled to sing with a 
degree of definiteness and accuracy, not easily ob- 
tained by any method of what is commonly termed 
" singing by interval." 

MENTAL EFFECTS. (MAJOR MODE.) 
TE Sharp. Piercing. 
LAH Sad. Weeping. 
SOH Grand. Bright. Bold. 
FAH Gloomy. Desolate. Grave. 
ME Gentle. Calm. Peaceful. 
RAY Rousing. Hopeful. 
DOH Firm. Restful. 

These approximate descriptions of mental effect 
are only true of the tones of the scale when sung 
slowly ; when the ear is filled with the key ; and when 
the effect is not modified by harmony. 

MANUAL SIGNS. 

A set of manual signs have been devised which 
enables the teacher to face the class while giving an 
indication of the tones desired to be sung. By com- 
paring the diagram of manual signs (page 6), it will 
be seen that each sign gives a suggestive picture of 
the mental effect of the tone which it represents. 
They have been found invaluable as a means of 
concentrating attention in teaching time ; and so 
strong is their mnemonic power, that pupils will often 



i6 

sing, by their aid, difficult intervals, when other 
means have failed. It must be observed, however, 
that they are simply a means to an end, and the 
error of using ^them to the exclusion of the modulator 
and blackboard must be avoided. 

The major scale is treated as being the same in all 

keys, and has but one representation for one thing, 

I viz. : the initial letters of each note. 

| The following example is written in 



the key of C, but should it be desired in the key of 
E, all that is necessary is to substitute E for C and 
change the pitch of the key-tone; the notation will 
remain unchanged : 

KEY C. 

d :m |f :m.r|d :t, |d :- 



KEY E. 

Id :m |f :m.r|d :t, |d :- 



The tones are introduced chordally, not diatonically. 
This is the method which best ac- 



,ROL TREATMENT of 



Tones are more easily sung when arranged chordally, 
i. ., in groups composed of a tone with its third and 
fifth, (d Pi s) (f 1 d 1 ) (s t r 1 ) and by this means pupils 
are trained to sing wide intervals from the outset. 
The practice of singing intervals stepwise only is 
productive of uncertainty in reading at sight, and is 
narrowing in its effect. The principle of tuning 
instruments by chord has been followed by musicians 
for centuries, and recognized as the only true means 



FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES. 17 

of securing perfection in tuning; but John Curwen, 
the founder of the Tonic Sol-fa system, was the first 
to make a practical application of the principle to the 
teaching of vocal music. 

The tonic chord (d Pi s), the most common chord 
in music, is composed of the strongest tones of the 
scale, consequently is the first in order of introduction. 

TIME. 

Time is taught apart from Tune, the exercises in 
time only being sung on a monotone. 

The successful teaching of time depends largely on 
the recognition of three great facts, viz. : 
The existence of pulses in music. 
The regularity of pulses. 

The accent of pulses and consequent grouping 
into measures. 

I EXISTENCE OF I If P u P ils be requested to clap hands 



| PULSES. | while a lively tune is being sung, 
it will be observed that their beats will be almost 
exactly alike, and will seem to fit into some element 
of the tune. This element is termed the pulse of the 
tune. 

In any one tune, these pulses will be 
found to be regular in recurrence and 



duration, although in some tunes they move faster 

than in others. 

As in poetry, the accents are of vari- 
ous degrees of strength, so also in 



music. The regular recurrence of the strong pulse 
divides the music into measures, When every 



1 8 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

alternate pulse is strong, there will be two pulses in 
each measure, and when the strong pulse is followed 
by two weak pulses, there will be three pulses in 
each measure. 

EXAMPLE : 

TWO-PULSE MEASURE. 
1st Measure. 2nd Measure, 3rd Measure. 4th Measure. 

Strong. Weak. Strong. Weak. Strong. Weak. Strong. Weak. 

THREE-PULSE MEASURE. 
1st Measure. 2nd Measure. 3rd Measure. 

r ~rr~r v~r "i 

Strong. Weak. Weak. Strong. Weak. Weak. Strong. Weak. Weak. 



I' The pulse is the natural unit of time, 
and by it the length of all tones is 



calculated. Thus tones are said to be one pulse, 
three pulses or half-a-pulse in length. 

The advantages of the Tonic Sol-fa notation of 
time c * ot be overrated A refer- 



OF TIME. I ence to the above diagram will show 



that it gives prominence to the three principal facts 
referred to : each pulse being separately indicated, 
represented of equal length, and the various degrees 
of accent marked by specific signs. The following 
will serve still further to illustrate the unique charac- 
ter of this pictorial notation of time : 



Whole-pulse tones, ..Id :d Id id 

Two-pulse tones, ..Id : Id : 



FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES. 19 

Half-pulse tones, I d .d :d .d I d .d :d .d 

Quarter-pulse tones, . .|d,d.d,d:d,d.d,d| d I 

Pulse-and-half tones, I d : .d I d : .d I 

The notes which occupy a full space are one pulse 
in length ; the dash ( ) prolongs a tone into the 
following pulse ; the dot placed in the centre of a 
pulse divides it into halves, and the comma divides 
the halves into quarters. The dash followed by a 
dot lengthens the tone by one half pulse. In the 
more intricate divisions of the pulse the pictorial 
character of the notation is preserved throughout. 

TIME NAMES. 

In order to convey a correct impression of the 
rhythmic divisions of the pulse, various "time names" 
are employed. These are exceedingly useful in intro- 
ducing any new division of the pulse, as they establish, 
in the mind, an association of syllable and rhythm, 
in the same manner as Sol-fa names establish an 
association of syllable and interval. For full explana- 
tion of time names see page 48. 

FINGER-SIGNS FOR TIME. 

Some teachers use finger-signs for teaching time, 
but we do not recommend them except as an alterna- 
tive means of illustration with very young pupils. 
For the convenience of those who may wish to use 
them, a diagram is provided on page 7. 



20 THE TEACHER S HANDBOOK. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE VOICE. 

"MAN has sought out many inventions," and has 
exercised wonderful ingenuity in the devising and 
constructing of many beautiful and apparently perfect 
musical instruments, but far above the works of man 
stands a beautiful and perfect instrument of wondrous 
mechanism, supplied to every individual by the Divine 
Maker, who planned it the human voice. Among 
the many instruments made by man, there is not one 
which receives so little care and cultivation, or has 
experienced so much neglect as the human voice. 

Many attempts have been made to compare the 
voice to a mechanical instrument, but when pushed 
to a legitimate conclusion every one has completely 
broken down. For the purposes of illustration, no one 
will serve our purpose better than the reed organ. In 
it we have the three essentials of 
vocal tone ; viz.. bellows, vibrator, 
and resonator. In the organ, the wind is supplied to 
the vibrators by the bellows, and according to the 
pressure of wind from the bellows will the tone be 
soft or loud, and any irregularity of pressure will 
result in unsteadiness of tone. In the organ the vibra- 
tor is composed of steel reeds of various lengths, 
which, being set in motion by the wind from the bel- 
lows, emit a steady musical tone. The resonator is 



THREE ESSENTIALS 
OF THE VOICE. 



THE VOICE. 21 

composed of sounding boards and hollow boxes, and 
likewise of the case of the instrument as a whole. 




I] In the human voice, the bellows are 
THE BELLOWS. | represented by the lungs These are 

enclosed in the chest, which they fit exactly, and of 
which they occupy by far the largest portion, leaving 
but a small place for the heart. They are two in 
number, and are much wider at the bottom than at 
the top. 

Underneath the lungs is the midriff or diaphragm, 
a muscular, movable partition by which the lungs are 
separated from the abdomen. It is 
arched upwards like an inverted basin, 
and when its muscular fibres contract, it flattens and 
descends, thus increasing the capacity of the chest at 
the expense of that of the abdomen. 

Respiration consists of two acts, viz., inspiration 
and expiration. Inspiration may be produced in three 
different ways : 

(1) By pushing the chest forward and flattening the 
midriff, so as to compel the lungs to descend, and to 
increase in volume, in order to fill the empty space 
created by this movement. 

(2) By extending the ribs sideways. 

(3) By drawing w/the upper parts of the chest, viz., 
the collar-bones and shoulder blades. 

We will term these (i) Midriff breathing ; (2) Rib 
breathing ; (3) Collar-bone breathing. 

Collar-bone breathing is to be con- 
demned, and should never be used. 
It utilizes only the thin upper parts of the lungs, 



COLLAR-BONE 
BREATHING INJURIOUS. 



I MIDRIFF AND RIB- 
BREATHING DESIRABLE, 



22 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

which cannot contain as much air as the broad under 
parts ; and, as all the parts surrounding the upper 
region of the lungs are hard and unyielding, much 
fatigue is occasioned by their use. Midriff and rib- 
breathing combined forms at once 
the most natural and easy method of 
breathing, and should be diligently practised by all. 

The Vibrator is formed by two chords or bands 
called the vocal ligaments. These are enclosed in the 
larynx, or voice box, commonly called Adam's Apple.* 
To give anything like a full description of these liga- 
ments would necessitate much more space than is 
available, consequently we will merely analyze the 
results of their action. Sound " middle C " of ,the 
I ~~~~ """" " I piano and sing downwards, when a 
change will be experienced in the 



THE REGISTERS. 



larynx and a difference in quality of tone will be at 
once apparent, when A is sounded. This is caused by 
a change in the method in which the ligaments are 
made to vibrate. Continuing downwards no other 
alterations will be experienced. Starting from C and 
singing upwards other changes will be felt between 
E and F. and between B and C ; still another change 
takes place between A 1 and B 1 , but the register above 
is not found in adult male voices. The term register 
has been given to each series of notes produced by 
one mechanism, and the voice has been classified as 
follows : 



* For full information, see " The Mechanism of the Human 
Voice," by Behnke. (Curwen & Sons, London, Eng.) 



THE VOICE. 23 

TABLE OF THE AVERAGE COMPASS OF THE REGISTERS. 




c 2 -i 

B; | 



G' 
F' 

E' 
D' 

C 1 
B 

A 



SMALL. 



UPPER THIN. 



LOWER THIN. 



UPPER THICK. 



LOWER THICK. 



The names thick, thin, and small are given on 
account of the manner in which the vocal ligaments 
vibrate. In the thick registers, they vibrate through- 
out their whole thickness, but in the thin register, only 
the thin inner edges of the vocal ligaments are in 
vibration, and in the small register, only a small 
portion of the ligaments are in vibration. 

The forcing of any of these registers upwards past 
the above limits is highly injurious, but they can be 
extended downwards without injury, and ought to 
be cultivated downwards until they blend with the 
register immediately underneath. 

The Resonator is formed by the upper part of the 
throat and the mouth. To illustrate the functions 
of the resonator, take an ordinary violin string, stretch 
over an ordinary deal box, and set it in vibration. 



24 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

A musical sound will certainly be produced, but poor 
in comparison with that which will be heard with the 
same string stretched over a violin. There is no 
difference in the vibrator the string but there is 
a great difference in the resonator. In the same way, 
let a person sing with the teeth nearly close together, 
the lips drawn over the teeth, the tongue arched 
upwards, and the breath kept back in the mouth, and 
we get a tone as poor in quality as any combination 
of salt box and fiddle string can make. But let the 
mouth be well opened and the voice directed well 
forward in the mouth, and we get a tone equally pure 
with that of the finest violin. 

To produce a steady tone, and gain proper control 
of the breath, breathing exercises must be practised 
until a fair command of the lungs is obtained. 

To produce correctly, tones of any pitch, we must 
study the action of the vibrator, until the registers of 
the voice are equalized and blended with each other. 

Purity of tone depends largely on the shape of the 
resonator, the quality changing with the slightest 
motion of the mouth or throat. 

In order to cultivate pure quality of tone, voice! 
exercises should be practised at the beginning of 
every music lesson. By this means the attention is 
confined exclusively to the formation of correct 
habits in singing, which are thus kept before the mind 
throughout the entire lesson. 



MODULATOR DRILL. 25 

CHAPTER V. 

MODULATOR DRILL. 

IN the Tonic Sol-fa notation the modulator takes the 
place occupied by the staff in the common notation. 
Like the staff it gives a pictorial representation of 
intervals, but with more accurateness than is possible 
with the staff. The exact intervals between the tones 
of the scale are clearly shown in the first three steps, 
and in the following steps the true relation of keys, 
the most important element in the teaching of sing- 
ing, is clearly set forth. Modulator drill should form 
the basis of all teaching to read music, and should 
occupy a prominent place in every lesson. 

The teacher should have some 
HAVE AN AIM, , /* .. , . . . ... 

definite object in view while con- 



ducting modulator drill. Some teachers simply let 
the pointer wander up and down as fancy may 
dictate. This is, unquestionably, wrong. The object 
of the drill should be : 

1st. To familiarize the pupils with the mental effect 
of the tones, irrespective of the interval by which 
they are approached. 

2nd. To enable the pupils to gain a clear mental 
conception of each tone, and to sing them in any 
desired combination. 

3rd. To give confidence and certainty in points 
where a weakness has been found to exist. The 



26 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

methods of accomplishing this object are explained 
under modulator drill in the graded lessons given 
below. 

Always sing the key-tone as a pattern to your class, 
and do not commence drill until it has been imitated 
in correct tune by all. 

If pupils experience a difficulty in singing any 
tone, do not tell them that they are singing too 
high or too low, but appeal to their sense of mental 
effect by questioning Was that bright enough for 
sok ? Did you sing that firmly enough for doh ? 
Point definitely to the note you intend should be 
sung, and move the pointer rapidly to the note 
which follows. 

Do not allow pupils to sing any tone until you have 
indicated it. A neglect of this rule will cause con- 
fusion and induce carelessness and inattention. Pupils 
will anticipate, but they must be trained to sing the 
intervals indicated by the teacher, not those which 
they expect. If a pupil should persist in this, either 
through carelessness, or eagerness, it will be advisable 
to request him to stop singing for a little. When one 
voice sings a wrong tone in advance of the others, 
they are almost certain to follow, unless accustomed 
to singing with certainty. 

In order to make modulator drill 
AVOID REPETITION. .. .... ., , 

effective, repetition must be avoided. 



Inexperienced teachers frequently fall into the error 
of pointing to the tones in a loose, careless manner, 
whereby they unconsciously repeat phrases, and teach 



RUNNING IN 
GROOVES. 



MODULATOR DRILL. 27 

their pupils to anticipate the tones which follow. 
Such careless habit should be rigidly guarded against 
asit only leads to running in grooves, and instead of 
strengthening pupils in reading music, 
has a decidedly weakening effect We 
have repeatedly seen classes singing apparently diffi- 
cult exercises from the modulator, while their own 
teacher pointed, but when led by a stranger they 
failed completely to sing even the simplest intervals. 
On such occasions the teacher usually expresses 
surprise, and asserts that, " they always sing that 
easily for me," and certainly they do, but only when 
approached in the one manner to which they are 
accustomed. We have seen an instance of a class 
which would invariably sing the first half-dozen tones 
d Pi S Pi r d, even though naming oilier tones pointed 
by the examiner. This was certainly running in 
grooves with a vengeance. Still, the teacher of the 
class in question had been trying conscientiously to 
teach her pupils, and was perfectly satisfied with the 
results, as they seldom made mistakes while following 
her pointing. Of course she was unaware that she had 
been giving only a few tones, continuously repeated, 
and that her pupils had practically learnt nothing 
from all the modulator exercises they had sung. In 
order to avoid the error the teacher should memorise 
How TO SECURE I sec tions of tunes by various writers, 



VARIETY. | containing a sufficient variety of style, 



and introduce them into the exercises given on the 
modulator. In the same manner difficult phrases in 



28 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

any song under study may be worked into the 
exercise with advantage. 

It will also be found of mutual advantage to 
exchange with another teacher. By this means, both 
classes are tested by a strange teacher, and any 
weakness which may exist is quickly discovered. 

It has been said that " the modulator is to the 
Tonic Sol-fa system as the sun is to the solar system," 
but this is only true when the modulator is properly 
used. 

VOCALISING. 

This is the term applied to singing on one vowel. 
The vowel most commonly used is the broad ah t as it 
secures the most open quality of tone, and aids 
correct opening of the mouth while singing. This 
is sometimes termed laa-ing. Whenever pupils can 
sing the syllables with any degree of certainty, they 
should be taught to vocalise from the modulator and 
hand-signs. This induces concentration, a definite 
conception of tones, and is an excellent means of 
mental training. It forms the connecting link be- 
tween sol-fa-ing and singing to words. Pupils must 
not be expected to vocalise difficult intervals at first, 
but should be drilled in singing easy exercises from 
the modulator, at a slow rate of speed, in order that 
they may have time to think each tone. When this 
power of thinking the tones has been developed the 
syllables may be dispensed with, except in cases of 
exceptional difficulty. 



SIGHT-SINGING. 29 

CHAPTER VI. 

SIGHT-SINGING. 
THOROUGH systematic drill in sight-singing should 



"ONE THING AT A I f rm an important part of every lesson. 
TIME" I During the earlier lessons it will be 



found advisable to write the notes on the blackboard 
without any regard to rhythm, in order that undivided 
attention may be given to the difficulties of tune. 

As in modulator drill, repetition or running in 
grooves must be carefully avoided. In order to 
secure variety, extracts from songs which are un- 
familiar may be taken and interspersed with phrases 
of the teacher's own composition 

As a rule, the exercises should be short and to 
the point Long exercises containing 
difficult intervals are dry and unin- 
teresting, and are productive of little else than list- 
lessness and restlessness. On the contrary, when 
short exercises, containing each a single difficulty, are 
used, the interest can be sustained for a much longer 
period. At the successful termination of each exe-rcise 
there is a feeling that something has been accom- 
plished, some difficulty overcome, and fresh difficulties 
are attacked with vigor and certainty. 

Individualizing should be encouraged from the 
I CULTIVATE I earnest lessons. At first nervousness 



SHORT EXERCISES 
ARE PREFERABLE. 



| INDIVIDUAL SINGING. | and timidity will prevent pupils from 
volunteering to sing in presence of their classmates, 



30 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

but a little discreet persuasion will soon convince 
them that individual singing is no more difficult than 
individual reading. Until a sufficient degree of con- 
fidence has been developed, it will be necessary to 
have the exercise sung by the entire class before being 
sung by individual pupils. When this stage has been 
reached, individual sight-singing may be attempted. 
While one pupil is reading the exercise, the others 
will be watching closely and eagerly listening for 
mistakes. This will be found an excellent means of 
cultivating habits of observance and attention in 
sight-singing. 

Whenever an exercise has been satisfactorily sung 
on any one key, change the key, giving the sound of 

I CHANCE KEY 1 ^ e new doh firmly, and repeat the 
FREQUENTLY. | exercise. Pupils should be trained to 
sing in any key from the outset. Exercises which 
strain the compass of the young voices must not be 
attempted. 

In primary classes it will be necessary to use the 
syllables almost exclusively at first, but the' power to 
vocalise, i. e. t sing on one vowel-sound, should be de- 
veloped simultaneously. Pupils may sol-fa an exer- 
cise easily, but unless they can afterwards vocalise, or 
sing it to words, the exercise will not be productive 
of the best practical results. Exercises containing 
exceptional difficulties should not be introduced unless 
there is a certainty that the pupils have sufficient 
ability to overcome them successfully. No fixed rule 
can be given for grading the difficulty of exercises in 
sight-singing for all classes, but the following will be 



TIME. 



found useful as a test. If pupils cannot vocalise an 
exercise after having sol-faed it three times, it may 
be safely assumed that it is too difficult. The inter- 
vals with which the difficulty has been experienced, 
should then be carefully studied from the modulator 
before being again introduced into the sight-singing 
exercises. 

The use of colors in writing the exercises will be 
found helpful in many ways. They serve to recall the 
mental effects of the tones by comparison and contrast, 
and also concentrate the attention on the difficulties 
to be overcome. 




CHAPTER VII. 

TIME. 

IN children the feeling of rhythm is instinctive and 
usually active. When a lively air is heard it will be 
noticed that children invariably in- 
cline to mark time in some way or 
other ; it may be by stamping with the feet, nodding 
the head, clapping hands, or, if at liberty to do so, by 
marching in time with the music. Notwithstanding 
this fact, the number of classes in which " singing out 
of time " predominates, is largely in excess of those 
in which singing in strict time is the rule. 

Several theories have been offered in explanation, 
all of which are more or less correct. One is, that 



32 THE TEACHERS HANDBOOK. 

pupils are not all of the same temperament, and those 
who are of a lively temperament will naturally incline 
to sing faster than those of a dull, sluggish disposition. 
This is certainly true, but when pupils are trained to 
take the rate of movement from the teacher's baton, 
all such individualities ought to be subordinate to the 
will of the teacher. This should be insisted upon 
from the most elementary lesson. 

We are of opinion that the true cause of failure in 
teaching rhythm will be found in the unconscious 
habit, which many teachers have formed, of teaching 
mathematics of time, while the thing itself has been 
left untouched. In examination papers in music, 
we have frequently met with such 
questions as the following : "How 
many eighth-notes are contained in a dotted whole- 
note ? " and have found pupils who could answer such 
questions correctly, but who could not tell the differ- 
ence between the rhythm in " Old Hundredth " and 
"God Save the Queen," except on paper. Such 
examples of neglect of the precept which demands 
that " the thing before the sign " should be taught, 
are unfortunately by no means rare. In teaching 
time, it will be found advisable to develop the rhythm 
by listening to ear exercises, and tapping the pulses 
(see page 17), until a clear conception of the rhythm 

II has been formed. When this has 
EYE-TRAINING. [ been sat i s f actor ji v accomplished, the 



MATHEMATICS MIS- 
TAKEN FOR RHYTHM, 



pupils will be enabled to give undivided attention to 
the training of the eye in reading the notation of 
time. 



TIME. 33 

In order to test the instinctive feeling of rhythm, 
let the teacher mark the pulses, by tapping lightly, 
while singing one or two measures containing intri- 
cate divisions of the pulse. If this be sung on one 
tone, it will be found that a majority of the pupils 
will imitate correctly whatever phrase has been sung. 
This experiment proves that there is little difficulty 
in singing certain intricacies of rhythm, but recognis- 
ing them in musical notation, and knowing when to 
sing them is a very different matter. In the ordinary 
or staff notation of music this is a matter of consider- 
able difficulty, and though it has been simplified to a 
great extent in the Tonic Sol-fa notation, careful 
attention to eye-training is absolutely indispensable. 
The most common cause of difficulty is to be found 
in irregular beating of pulses in the 
elementary lessons. Teachers should 
be careful to point to the accent marks only when con- 
ducting exercises in rhythm, and never on any 
account to the notes, dots or commas contained within 
the pulse. The following will serve to illustrate the 
proper and improper methods of pointing. The * 
denotes the position of the pointer at each successive 
tap : 

Improper I d :r , r | m ;- . r I d :t| .t, | d : 

Method. I* **'* * I * **'* 

Proper I d :r , r | m : - . r I d it, .t, | d ! 

Method. 

* * * * * * 

Should the above improper method of pointing to 
pulses be followed, it will be impossible to secure 




COLORED CRAYONS 
ADVANTAGEOUS. 



34 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK 

correctness in singing in time. In writing on the 
blackboard it will be found advantageous to use 
colored crayons for the pulse signa- 
tures. By this means they are made 
to stand out distinctly from the notes, (which are 
written with white), and the eye is unconsciously 
directed to the sign for each pulse as it is felt or heard. 
In teaching rhythm all exercises should be sung on 
a monotone. This does not necessarily imply that 
only one note should be used, Many teachers make 
the mistake of using only one note, as follows : 

Id :d .d d :- Id.drd.d |d :- 

or, II : l .1 |1 : - 11.1 :1 .1 |1 : 



The first example is certainly preferable to the 
second, but both fail in one important respect, viz., 

I' USE MORE THAN ONE I eye-training. We have followed the 
NOTE IN WRITING. | above method for years, but have 
been compelled to abandon its use for the more 
rational one of presenting the notation as nearly as 
possible as it is likely to be met with in singing real 
tunes. Examples of tunes consisting of a monotone 
are exceedingly rare. If pupils are trained to sing 
any new division of rhythm from a notation of one 
note only, they experience a difficulty in recognizing 
the same division in an unfamiliar melody. In order 
to overcome this difficulty, we have adopted the 
plan of changing the notes with every pulse, which 
presents the notation in its true form and trains the; 



TIME. 35 

pupils to recognize it more readily when singing at 
sight. In pursuance of this plan the above exercise 
would be written 

d :Pi.n|s : Is.s :m.n d : 



and would be taught first by using the time-names, 
then naming the syllables, on one tonq, and finally 
singing the syllables in tune. 

THE NOTATION OF TIME. 

In a previous chapter reference was made to the 
educational advantage of the Tonic Sol-fa notation 
of time, in presenting a picture of the relative length 
of each tone, and clearly indicating each variation 
of accent. 

Music, like poetry, is characterised by a regularity 
of rhythm and accent. To this fact we owe much of 
the pleasure which we derive from music ; it may be 
in the mere jingle of a minstrel ballad 
or the elevating strains of a grand 
oratorio. The influence of rhythm in music is all- 
powerful ; but without it music would sound insipid 
and dull. Let the following familiar tune be sung 
with the strong accent on each note marked with 
a A and notice the effect. 

KEY F ST. PETER. 

A A A A A A A 

sd'tlssfmmrdfmr 

\ A A A A A A 

mfmlssfmdmrdtid 

It will be apparent that the tune is altered almost 
beyond recognition by this simple change of accent, 



REGULARITY OF 
RHYTHM. 



36 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

By simply putting the accent on the second note and 
every alternate note following, the tune will be re- 
stored to its original form. 

I In the Tonic Sol-fa notation, pro- 
ACCENTS. .. . i r ,1 . ., ,. 
I vision is made for three gradations of 



accent, viz., strong, medium, "and iveak. The signs 
employed to represent these are 

Strong I A relatively long upright line. 



Medium | A relatively short upright line. 
Weak ; A colon. 

MEASURE. 

The strong accents recur at regular intervals' and 
divide the music into measures. A measure is the 
space from one strong accent to the next strong accent. 
In writing, the signs for the various pulses are 
placed at equal distances apart, and thus present to 
the eye a picture of the equal length of the pulses as 
recognized by the ear. Too much care cannot be 
observed in this particular, as an exercise in which 
the pulses are represented as of un- 
equal length is misleading, and is 
invariably sung in a halting and jerky manner. 

The most common cause of this error is the habit of 

writing the notes and the pulse signs simultaneously. 

I In order to avoid this, the signs for 

I the strong pulses should first be writ- 



PULSE SICNS SHOULD 
BE EQUIVALENT. 



ten, then the measures divided into pulses, and finally 



TIME. 37 

the notes inserted in their respective places, moder- 
ately close to the pulse sign which precedes them. 
EXAMPLE : 

M | , 

i 



(d) ild :r.r|m rr.rld :t,.t,|d : 



The above process may, on first sight, be considered 
rather slow, but on trial it will be found to take less 
time and secure better results than the haphazard 
method previously mentioned. 

Measures are broadly divided into 



In duple measure every alternate pulse is accented. 
In triple measure every third pulse is accented. 
Two-pulse tneasure is the simplest duple form. 

TWO-PULSE MEASURE. 



II 



Strong. Weak. Strong. Weak. Strong. Weak. Strong. Weak. 

Three-pulse measure is the simplest triple form. 

THREE-PULSE MEASURE. 



II 



Strong. Weak. Weak. Strong. Weak. Weak. Strong. Weak Weak. 

Occasionally the second pulse in three pulse-meas- 
ure is sung with a medium accent, but it is always 
written as above. 



38 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

FOUR-PULSE MEASURE. 



Strong. Weak. Medium. Weak. Strong. Weak. Medium. Weak. 

This is the most common of all forms of measure, 
and on this account is often termed " common time." 
The difference between the medium and strong 
accents is very slight, and by many performers both 
are made of equal importance. 

SIX-PULSE MEASURE. 



Strong. Weak. Weak. Medium. Weak. Weak. 

This is sometimes termed double-triple measure, 
and it is important to note that it is composed of two 
sets of three pulses, not three sets of two pulses. 

NINE-PULSE MEASURE. 



This is composed of three sets of three pulses each. 
It is not very commonly used, except in extended 
compositions. 

TWELVE-PULSE MEASURE. 

: : I : : I : : I : : 



This is composed of four sets of threes, and like 
the previous form is not commonly used. Neither is 
likely to be found in compositions for school classes. 

The double line at the end of the examples must 
not be mistaken for a pulse sign. It is used solely to 
denote the end of a complete piece of music, or 
section of such. 



TIME. 

The bracket { denotes the end of a printed line or 
score, and may include one or more parts. When 
several parts are included within the j they are 
intended to be sung simultaneously by voices divided 
into a corresponding number of parts.* In writing, 
(unless where a silent pulse follows) a line should 
never end with a pulse sign, as 

d :n .d |s :m |r :d.r |n :d 



II 



3 :f m |r im.flm :r |d : 



SECONDARY 
MEASURES. 



but should have the pulse sign placed at the begin- 
ning of the succeeding line. The reason for this is 
that a pulse mark denotes the degree of accent to be 
given to the note which it immediately precedes, 
hence the pulse sign should not be in one line while 
the note is in another. 

When a piece of music commences 
on the strong accent, as shown in 
above examples, it is said to be in Primary measure* 
and when it commences on any other than the strong 
pulse it is said to be in Secondary measure. 

EXAMPLES OF SECONDARY MEASURES. 

Two-pulse | : I : I : J II 

Three-pulse f : 

Four-pulse j ; 
I 

Six-pulse f : 



RAPID MOVEMENT 
OF PULSES. 



40 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

The criterion of a pulse is held to be that place in 
a piece of music where we instinctively beat time. 

If a piece of music be performed 
alternately slowly and quickly, it will 
be found that in the latter case the stronger accents 
only will impress themselves sufficiently to be recog- 
nised as pulses, and the former pulses will be consid- 
ered simply as sub-divisions of the new pulses. The 
most frequent use of this method is to be found in 
connection with six-pulse measure. When sung 
rapidly this will appear to be two- 
pulse measure, with pulses divided 
into thirds. In beating time the beats will fall only 
on the strong and medium accents, thus : 



BEATING TWICE IN A 
MEASURE. 



When it is intended that a piece of music should 
be sung in this way, directions as to beating time are 
given. " Beating twice in a measure," "beating twice," 
or more frequently only the word " twice " is used to 
denote the method of marking the pulses. 

In quick nine-pulse measure the pulses are beat 
" thrice in a measure," and are expressed as above, 
the word " thrice " being substituted for " twice." 

In order to denote the rate of speed 
at which pulses are intended to move 



METRONOME RATE. 



in a given tune, Metronome marks are placed at the 
beginning, or at any point where a change in the rate 
of movement is desired. Metronome is the name 



TIME. 41 

applied to an instrument which marks the pulses at 
various desired rates of movement. Metronome 60, 
abbreviated M. 60, denotes that sixty beats of the 
Metronome are to be given in one minute. 

Practically the M. may be taken to mean minute, 
thus M. 60, M. 70, M. 84, denotes that the number of 
pulses indicated are to occupy one minute. 

M. 60 TWICE. 



This indicates that the pulses are beat twice in each 
measure, moving at the rate of sixty pulses in the 
minute. 

The more elaborate metronomes are supplied with 
a clock-work arrangement, and pendulum with sliding 
weight, which regulates the rate of movement accord- 
ing to a given scale. By means of a series of tooth- 
and-pinion wheels the pulses are ticked audibly, and 
some have a bell attachment which strikes the accen- 
ted pulses also. Such instruments are rather expen- 
sive for general use, and a cheaper form of instrument 
is necessary. What is known as the "tape-and- 
weight" metronome will be found to answer all ordin- 
ary purposes. This is easily made by attaching a 

How TO MAKE A I we ig nt to tne en d of an ordinary tape 

METRONOME. J measure. This may be held in the 

hand, or suspended from any convenient peg, and 

when in motion each complete vibration will correspond 

to a pulse. 

The following table gives the number of inches of 
the tape required for the different rates of movement. 



42 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

The number of inches here given is not absolutely 
correct, but is near enough for ordinary purposes : 

M. 50 Tape 56 inches. 

M. 56 47 

M. 60 " 38 

M. 66 31 

M. 72 " 27 

M. 76 " 24 

M. 80 " 21 

M. 88 " 17 

M. 96... 

M. 120 " 

In order to gain some idea of the respective rates 
of movement, it is advisable to memorize one distinct 
rate, and adopt it as a standard by which to compare 
all others. M. 60 will be found most serviceable for 
this purpose. When this rate has once been fixed in 
the mind, it will be an easy matter to think of M. 120 
as being twice as rapid, M. 90 one half quicker, and 
the intermediate rates in proportion. 

BEATING TIME. 

Various methods of beating time are employed as : 

1. Tapping the blackboard while pointing to the pulse- 

signs of the tune being sung. 

2. Tapping the pulses audibly without pointing to the 

pulse-signs. 

3. Stamping with the feet. 

4. Simply marking the pulses by a clearly defined 

movement of the pointer or baton. 



TIME. 43 

The first two methods are necessary in conducting 
elementary exercises, in which the pupils' attention is 
concentrated on the notation,~but should be dispensed 
with as soon as possible. 

The third method is unquestionably bad, and has 
not one single redeeming feature to recommend it. 
When indulged in, it induces loud and harsh singing 
with consequent forcing of voices. Teachers should 
discourage its use on the part of their pupils, and 
should avoid setting a bad example. 

NOTE. This is easier said than done. 

The fourth method is the best of all. Pupils should 
be thoroughly trained to watch the beat, and no 
exercise or song should be considered well taught 
until it has been sung in accordance with the silent 
movements of the teacher's baton ; in this respect the 
teacher must be an autocrat, by whose will every 
pupil must submit to be governed. 

The ordinary forms of beating time are as follows : 

TWO-PULSE MEASURE. THREE-PULSE MEASURE. 

Weak. Weak. 

UP. 



DOWN 

Strong. 




44 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

FOUR-PULSE MEASURE. 




RIGHT Medium. 



SIX-PULSE MEASURE. 

Down, left, left, right, right, up. 

Sometimes this is beat as for two three-pulse meas- 
ures. When quick, beat as for two-pulse measure. 

NINE-PULSE MEASURE. 

Commonly treated as three-pulse measure. 
In beating time, the baton should move quickly, 
and definitely to a "point of rest" at the extremity 
of each beat. The tendency to in- 
dulge in cutting ornamental figures 
should be carefully avoided. This style of conducting 
is unfortunately too common. It may seem to be 
pretty enough when viewed by an audience of specta- 
tors, but the teacher must remember that he conducts, 
not for the audience, but for the singers. No style of 
marking time can rivet the attention of the singers so 
well as the .plain geometrical movement of the baton 
indicated above. In order to define the rate of move- 
ment, it is advisable to beat a silent measure before 




TIME. 45 

the singers commence. As a rule this should begin 
on the first pulse of the measure, and should the piece 
begin on a secondary measure the voices will enter 
when due. 

LENGTH OF TONES. 

All duration values are calculated from the pulse 
as a unit. A note placed between any two pulse- 
signs is one pulse in length, unless followed by some 
qualifying sign. 

EXAMPLE : 

Id :s !m :d [r :t, Id :d I 

Each note in the above is one pulse in length. 
When a tone is continued or prolonged, a continuation 
mark ( ) is written in the pulse or pulses through 
which it is intended to be continued. 

EXAMPLE : * 

d :- Is :- 



CONTINUATION 

MARKS. 



In the above, d and s are each two pulses, and m 
is four pulses in length. In writing 
the notation, the continuation mark 
should be placed equidistant from the dots of the 
colon, or opposite the centre of the upright bars, but 
must not touch either. See above example. 

The Tonic Sol-fa notation gives a common-sense 
representation of silence or rests. 
Where there is nothing to be sung, 



nothing is represented, consequently no signs what- 



46 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK 

ever are used to denote silences. The number of 
pulses or fraction of pulses which is left empty denotes 
the duration of the silence or rest. 

EXAMPLE : 

d :m |s : I :m |d : II 

In the above the third and fourth pulses being 
empty, denotes a two-pulse silence. 

DIVISION OF Pulses are divided into fractions by 

PULSES. | signs placed between the pulse signs. 

A dot placed in the middle of a pulse, on a level with 

the lower dot of the colon, divides the pulse into 

halves. 

EXAMPLE : . 

Id :d.r |m :r.d|r :d.t, |d :- II 

The yi shows the notes which are half a pulse in 
length. Notes are frequently continued for one half 
pulse only ; such continuation is represented by a 
short continuation mark. 

EXAMPLE : 
Id :-.r|m :- .r Id :- .t, |d : 



Pulses are divided into quarters by placing a 
comma in the middle of each half-pulse. 

EXAMPLE : 

|d :r,m.f,s|l :s 

' :s,f.m,r|d :- 



TIME. 47 

Combinations of halves and quarters are represent- 
ed as follows : 

HALF AND TWO QUARTERS. 

:r ,m,f|s :s .f,n| 

X XX 

:r .m,r d : 



r 



TWO QUARTERS AND HALF. 

:r,m.f |s :s,f.m 

XXX XXX 

:r,m.r |d : 

XXX 

In representing the division of the pulse into three- 
quarters and quarter, a slight deviation has been made 
from the consistency of the notation, as explained 
above. Formerly the three-quarter-pulse tone was 
treated as a half-pulse tone continued for an additional 
quarter pulse, and represented as such by a short 
continuation mark extending to the comma, thus : - 
Id .-,r:m 



The majority of teachers however, have now de- 
cided that the three-quarter-pulse tone should be 
considered as a thing in itself, and not a half-pulse tone 
continued. In addition, the above form of notation 
was found to be inconvenient to the printer. The 
continuation mark has now been discarded, and the 
dot placed almost close to the comma. 

EXAMPLE : 



Id :r .,rm :r 

I 



X 
f :m .,r|d 



48 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

The division of the pulse into thirds is icpresented 
by inverted commas. 

EXAMPLE :- 
id :r<r,r|m :r,rrd :t, ,tj |d : 



Any part of a pulse may be silent. The space left 
empty will denote the part of the pulse which is 
silent. 

EXAMPLE : 

Id : .r |m : .r,m|f . ,s:m, . ,r d :- I 
\ >/ 2 # I X XX I 

A complete time-chart for reference is given on 
page 8. 

TIME-NAMES. 

The above written analysis of time-values cannot 
convey any correct -impression of their effect when 
sung. This can only be learnt through hearing. Every 
teacher who has experienced the difficulties of teach- 
ing Rhythm, must realise the advantages of a system 
of " Time-names," which at once gives a clear con- 
ception of the mental effect of various rhythmic forms, 
and fixes their conception on the ears and minds of 
the pupils. The time-names of the Tonic Sol-fa 
system have been adopted from M. Paris's " Langue 
des durees," which had previously been successfully 
used in France in connection with the " Galin-Paris- 
Cheve" system. This system is in many respects 
identical with the Tonic Sol-fa system and is based 



TIME. 49 

on the same fundamental principles. The Time-names 
have been adopted by the promoters of other systems, 
but have been so improved (?) as to be almost un- 
recognisable. The beautiful simplicity of the arrange- 
ment of the vowels has been discarded, and a separate 
vowel introduced on every accent. The mere effort 
of memorizing such a complex arrangement of names 
induces confusion and neglect of the thing. When 
the founder of the Tonic Sol -fa system, Rev. John 
Curwen, first adopted the French time-names he 
was induced to improve (?) on them by changing the 
consonants, and in several instances the vowels also ; 
but his experience, and that of the large body of 
teachers of the system, resulted in a return being 
made to the simple names, as proved and tested by 
the French for years. In announcing his decision he 
says, "If names become complex they draw a large 
amount of attention to themselves, which should be 
given to the things they represent. In carrying the 
time-names through a course of lessons, I found that 
my modifications, simple as they seemed, had intro- 
duced a practical complexity which became more 
troublesome than useful, and that increasingly so as 
we went further on. Therefore it was after long 
discussions and experiments that we decided to use 
the French time-names just as they came to us after 
years of well-tested use." The Time-names have now 
been in use for sixty years, and, in their original form, 
are more generally used than ever. 

" The system is founded on the principle that time 
is measured to the ear and mind, not by appreciated 



50 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

durations only, but by those louder and abrupt deliv- 
eries of tone which we call accents both by the 
stronger accents of a measure and by the more deli- 
cate accents of a pulse." The time-name for the first 
stroke of a pulse is Taa, and, should no qualifying sign 
be added within the pulse, no additional syllable is 
necessary. Consonants indicate the percussion of 
tones, vowels indicate their duration. The following 
are the time-names for the common divisions of 
rhythm : 

WHOLE-PULSE TONES. 



l d 

|TAA 


:r |m 

TAA TAA 


:d 

TAA 






HALVES. 






Id .r 

|Taa - Tai 


:n .d |r 

Taa - Tai Taa 


.m :d 

- Tai Taa - 


.d 

Tai 




QUARTERS 






|d,r .m 

|Ta fa te 


,f :s ,f ,m,r |d 

fe Ta fa te fe Taa 


.t, :d 

Tai Taa 




HALVES AND QUARTERS. 


Id .r 

|Taa te 


,m :f .n ,r m ,f 

fe Taa te fe ta fa 


.s :d 

Tai TAA 






THREE-QUARTER AND 


QUARTER. 




|Taa - 


,r :m .,f s 

fe Taa - fe 1%a 


.,f :m 

fe Taa 





THIRDS. 



U 



d ,r ,m :r <m f |m ,f ,s :d 

aa tai tee Taa tai tee Taa tai tee TAA 



TIME. 51 

The Time-names for silences are formed by sub- 
stituting s for the initial consonant, thus 

d : |m :d 

TAA Saa Taa Sat Taa Sai 

.d IT . ,n |f ,m . ,r :d . 

Tai Taa se fe Ta fa se fe Taa Sai 

The time-names for continued tones are formed by 
simply omitting the initial consonant, thus :,- 



d :- |r :- .d 

AA -aa TAA -aa Tai 



\t 

Id :- ,r .m,f |s : .f ,n II 

(TAA -a fe te fe TAA -aa te fe U 

Id :- 4 r ,n |f :- - ,m II 

|TAA -aa tai tee TAA -aa -ai tee M 

NOTE. " Ai " is pronounced as in maid, fail, etc. : " aa " as in 
father ; " a " as in mad ; " e " as in led, and " ee " as in tree. 

For time-names of more intricate divisions of the 
pulse, see Time-Chart on page 8. 

In practice, the time-names are sung on a monotone. 
It must be borne in mind that they are simply a 
means to an end, and not, as has sometimes been 
claimed, the " Ne plus ultra " in teaching time. We 
have frequently met with classes which could sing the 
most complicated rhythms while using the time-names 
or laa on one tone, but stumbled wofully when at- 
tempting to sing in tune simple exercises, containing 
no greater difficulties of rhythm than half-pulses. Such 
results are invariably caused by a false interpretation 
of the principle of teaching " one thing at a time." 
The elements of Time and Tune should invariably be 



52 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

taught separately until each has been mastered, but 
should then be immediately combined. When a 
certain division of rhythm has been mastered, and 
can be readily sung at sight on one tone, it should 
be combined with various tune-forms and practised 
thoroughly. Until this has been accomplished, it is 
unwise to introduce any new or more difficult form of 
rhythm. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

EAR CULTIVATION. 

IN the foregoing chapters we have confined the 
attention almost entirely to the reading of music ; 
but now an equally important subject remains to be 
discussed, viz., the thinking of music. 

The importance of this factor of musical education 
cannot be over-estimated. We have frequently met 
with instances of persons who could read music, but 
who could not tell the names of tones by ear, but 
have never known anyone who could name tones by 
ear without being able to sing them readily at sight. 
Many teachers have the impression that the faculty 
of recognizing tones by ear is difficult of acquirement, 
and can only be acquired by the gifted few. The 
unvarying experience of practical teachers is that any 
pupil who can recognize the difference between a 
high tone and a low one, can be trained to distinguish 
minute intervals of tune and time, provided the 
course of training be systematic and thorough, 



EAR CULTIVATION. 53 

The Tonic Sol-fa system of ear-training is based 
on the doctrine of " mental effects " of tones in key? 
not on the effects of tones in absolute pitch. One of 
the ablest of American musical critics, in an article 
on the subject, says : " The current impression of 
the average American writer on this subject, that the 
main feature of the Tonic Sol-fa system is the simple 

I A CRITIC'S OPINION I notation, leaves entirely out of the 
OF SOL-FA METHODS. | question two other elements, which 
are, if possible, even more important. The first of 
these elements is the method of instruction, or of 
cultivating the ear, invented, systemized and perfected 
by the Tonic Sol-fa teachers. They have the only 
system of training the ear to a cognition of musical 
impressions, according to their real nature, possessed 
by any body of elementary teachers." 

Exercises in "ear-telling" should form a part of 
every music-lesson. These exercises cultivate quick- 
ness in the sense of hearing, and in perception of 
tone relation ; and, in addition, cultivate the powers 
of observation and analysis. Pupils who have been 
trained on this principle can usually see more in a 
musical composition than those whose 
powers of reading only, have been 
cultivated. The latter are usually found lacking in 
the analytic faculty in observing. Just as in viewing 
a landscape, a cultivated eye will see beauties which to 
the ordinary observer are invisible, so also in reading 
music. Pupils should be trained, not to be mere 
singing machines, but to be observant listeners and 
intelligent performers. 



CULTIVATE INTELLI- 
GENT OBSERVATION. 



54 'i'HE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



I EAR EXERCISES These exercises are also valuable 

ASSIST THE VOICE. | from the fact that they give certainty 
to the voice in reading music. Many teachers make 
the fatal mistake of teaching singing by the same 
methods as they teach playing on an instrument. In 
playing, the reading of the notes is simply a matter 
of location, /'. e., reading the positions of the notes 
upon the staff and locating them upon the keyboard 
of the instrument. This may be accomplished me- 
chanically by persons utterly devoid of musical feel- 
ings ; but the reading of music in singing is a very 
different matter. No person can produce a vocal 
tone without first having formed a definite conception 
of the tone to be produced. In training the mind to 
form this conception, ear exercises are of the utmost 
importance. 

They are also helpful in testing individual pupils 
in musical examinations. Written examinations in 
music are frequently valueless as an indication of 
musical ability, while individual examinations of a 
practical nature are as frequently misleading. In the 
state of nervousness consequent on 
the consciousness of being under 
examination, pupils cannot be expected to do justice 
to themselves or their teacher, as they frequently lose 
control of the voice altogether. The ear exercises 
supply a practical test which is a happy medium 
between written and oral examinations, combining 
the advantages of both, while being freed from their 
disadvantages. 

While the advantage of these exercises cannot be 



USEFUL AS AN 
EXAMINATION TEST. 



EAR CULTIVATION. 55 

gainsaid, it is a matter of regret that, of all subjects 
in the musical curriculum, this receives the least 
attention. The reason is not far to seek. The ma- 
jority of teachers consider the subject too difficult, 
and are afraid of making mistakes while conducting 
the exercises. Teachers of ordinary musical ability 
can easily overcome this difficulty by attending to 
the preparation of the lesson. This may be done by 
memorizing a few phrases, suited to the grade to be 
taught, and using them as ear-tests. Three or four 
such tests will be sufficient for a first attempt. When 
these have been used successfully, confidence will 
result, and exercises containing greater difficulties 
may gradually be introduced. 



ALL TEACHERS CAN Unfortunately, however, there are 

LEARN TO , , . ,, , 

TEACH Music. I many otherwise excellent teachers 



who have been denied the advantages of an early 
musical education, and consequently cannot, with any 
degree of confidence, use their voices in teaching to 
sing. Many will unhesitatingly condemn such teach- 
ers for attempting to teach music, saying they ought 
not to be allowed to do so ; but to this I most em- 
phatically take exception. In this enlightened age 
they are few persons who will deny the utility of 
music-teaching in the school-room, or its advantages 
as a means of educational recreation. Granted that 
it possesses the advantages which have been claimed 
in its behalf, are teachers to be deprived of the enjoy- 
ment of sweet sounds, solely on account of an inability 
which is no fault of theirs ? Most certainly not. I 
have had the privilege of being associated in the 



56 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

work of teaching with many such teachers, and have 
yet to learn of one who could teach other subjects 
satisfactorily and has failed with music, after a 
conscientious endeavor to attain the necessary pre- 
liminary qualifications. Such teachers may never 
acquire sufficient confidence to enable them to sing 
in presence of their pupils, but they undoubtedly can 
cultivate the power of detecting errors in singing, by 
studying under a competent teacher. For the benefit 
of such teachers the following methods have been 
devised. 

Cultivate the habit of vocalising in your pupils. 

This will enable them to think the tones indepen- 
dent of their names. Encourage pupils to do this 
individually. 

If pupils display special aptitude in this direction 
let them sing an ear-test while the others write the 
names of the tones. Example. A girl satisfies the 
teacher that she is competent to vocalise a phrase of 
four tones. She writes them on her 
slate, and takes a position in front of 
class. Pupils are directed to write on their slates the 
numerals I, 2, 3, 4, and to listen for the fourth tone. 
The girl will then vocalise the four tones, say d S Pi d 1 . 
Pupils will then write the name of the fourth tone 
under number 4. This will be repeated while they 
listen for the third, second, and first tones, respectively, 
when the correct names will be announced. If this 
exercise be carefully conducted, pupils will be eager 
to assist and will probably display more interest than 
when the exercise is sung by a teacher. 




SCHOOL SONGS. 57 

A musical instrument may also be used with 

advantage. If a piano or organ is available, so much 

the better ; but if not, there are other less costly 

INSTRUMENTAL Am I instruments which will serve the pur- 



IN EAR-TRAINING. | pose equally well. There is a 



suitable little instrument called the " Metalophone," 
which can be procured at a moderate cost. It is 
composed of a sounding box made of wood, on which 
strips of metal of various lengths are loosely nailed. 
These, when struck with a small hammer, produce 
distinct musical sounds which can be distinguished 
readily by ear. In purchasing, it will be necessary to 
select one which is strictly in tune, as the inferior 
sorts are apt to be wofully deficient in this respect. 

Detailed hints for conducting ear-exercises will be 
found in subsequent chapters. 



CHAPTER IX. 

SCHOOL SONGS. 

IN the preceding chapters we have simply described 
the methods of conducting exercises in the various 
elements of music, but their successful combination 
into a complete whole demands a special treatment 
of its own. In teaching music there is a constant 
danger of sacrificing everything to 
technique, to make singing automatons 
of our pupils, rather than to lead them to see and 




58 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

feel the beauties of song, and so give intelligent ex- 
pression to the sentiments of the poet and composer. 
In order to gain this desired end, exercises, in Tune, 
Time, Ear-training and Vocal Gymnastics, must cer- 
tainly be studied, but simply as a means to an end. 
As a means of developing the powers of observation 
and concentration, of cultivating readiness in reading, 
and agility in executing, so that the mind may be 
relieved of all thought of merely mechanical details, 
and be at liberty to think of the more aesthetic 
qualities of music. If our choice were limited to 
exercises without songs, or songs without exercisers 
we should certainly choose the latter ; but fortunately 
the Tonic Sol-fa system provides an excellent means 
of securing both. A properly selected song, well 
taught, provides an excellent means of training at 
once the voice, the ear and the mind. 

In order that a song may possess those educational 
advantages it must be adapted to the abilities of the 
pupils, must contain no difficulties of Tune or Time 

] which have not been previously mas- 
SEUCT.ON.FSONOS. { carefu]ly graded 



gymnastics. It must also contain no tones outside 
the limits of the range of the pupils' voices, and above 
all the sentiment of the verse must be such as the 
pupils can easily comprehend. No true teacher would 
for a moment, think of giving an exercise in reading 
from the Fourth Book to the pupils of the Primary 
class, still the equally un-educational method of 
teaching (?) fourth-step songs to junior pupils is being 
pursued every day. 



SCHOOL SONGS. 59 

If songs are adapted to the abilities of the pupils, 
their study is certain to be a delightful source of 
pleasure and interest ; they will be found humming 
them around the school -yard, or singing them in the 
home for the entertainment of their parents, where, 
probably, their influence will create more true happi- 
ness than the most brilliant warbling of the prima 
donna. The use of songs in the school-room fulfils 
the double purpose of providing instruction and re- 
creation in the most pleasing form. Most teachers 
can testify to the benefits derived from singing some 
well-known school song when pupils have become 
tired and restless from close application to more 
severe studies. Such benefits .will be impossible of 
attainment, however, should the singing of the song 
entail the study of any serious technical difficulties. 
Let the songs selected be such as have been described 
above, and let them be preceded by a carefully 
graded series of exercises, and the singing lessons 
will be remembered as being among the brightest in 
school-life. An excellent authority on teaching has 
observed that " Our pupils remember us, not from the 
amount of technical knowledge with which we may 
have been able to cram their minds, but from the 
pleasure which we have combined with the acquire- 
ment of that knowledge." If we desire to make 
school-life thoroughly enjoyable, alike for pupils and 
teachers, let us have it freely interspersed with suitable 
songs which will teach only the true, the noble and 
the good. 

It must not, however, be supposed that only pupils 



60 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

who have learned to read music are to be allowed to 
sing. Such a course would be altogether contrary to 
nature. Children learn to sing at their mother's knee 
by the simplest of all methods, viz, imitation, and 
this should be continued throughout the earlier period 
of school-life. Our aim, as teachers, should be to 
continue the imitative process begun in infancy, so 
that the children may never know the time when 
they could not sing. This can best be accomplished 
through the free use of Rote Songs, consisting of 
simple words of easy comprehension, enlivened by a 

I bright "taking" melody. In teach- 
ROTE SONGS. 

ing a song by rote, the teacher must 



be careful to avoid loud or harsh singing, using only 
a pure, sweet tone of voice. The time should first be 
taught without the words, the teacher alone singing 
the first phrase while the pupils listen. When one 
phrase has been correctly imitated, the next will be 
taught by the same method until the whole tune has 
been learnt. The words should be studied separately 
from the teacher's pattern. In teaching the words, it 
is advisable to recite them on a monotone, but with 
exactly the same rJiythm and accent as will be used 
when singing in tune. When this has been accom- 
plished the words and music should be combined, 
and the ideas contained in the words developed by 
appropriate questioning. A number of suitable Rote 
songs will be found in the Appendix. 

Rote songs are frequently sung in 
<CS ' combination with appropriate actions, 



and are then known as Action Songs. By many 



SCHOOL SONGS. 6 1 

teachers, Action Songs have been unhesitatingly con- 
demned, and by others they have been equally unhesi- 
tatingly endorsed. It cannot be denied that when 
singing is accompanied by appropriate actions., or 
gestures, the general effect is enhanced and rendered 
exceedingly pleasing. The actions, likewise, usually 
consist of calisthenics, designed with the view of pro= 
moting aesthetic physical culture, and development of 
what has been fitly termed the " poetry of motion." As 
such, they are certainly productive of beneficial results, 
and are worthy of encouragement within reasonable 
limits. The great danger attending their use lies in 
the tendency to subordinate the musical to the general 
effect. This leads to the formation of careless habits 
in singing, and consequent misuse of the voice. In 
trained operatic artists, we have the highest type of 
singers of Action Songs. Even they, though trained 
to the scientific use of the voice, tell us that the strain 
on the physical and nervous system is much greater 
on the operatic stage than on the concert platform, 
where gestures are not generally used. If this be the 
case with adults, specially trained for this particular 
work, and possessing the knowledge requisite to 
govern the various faculties which it calls into action, 
how great must be the danger atten- 
dant on the singing of Action Songs 
by little children, whose physical organs are as yet 
weak and undeveloped. In Action Songs the gestures 
should be quiet and natural, and the singing soft and 
sweet. The teacher who cannot secure attention to 
these essentials, should not attempt the teaching of 



DANGER OF 
ACTION SONGS. 



62 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

Action Songs. Their use can be entrusted with safety 
only to the teacher who can realise the extreme 
delicacy of the vocal organs, and the care necessary 
to their successful preservation and development. 

If the object be the study of calisthenics, that only 
should engage the attention of the pupils. I have 
seen a class of children with backs bent and hands 
outstretched in the endeavour to touch their toes, and 
while in this position actually attempting to sing. Of 
course freedom of breathing under the circumstances 
was an impossibility. I do not for a moment object 
to calisthenics in the school-room, being aware of the 
beneficial results following their intelligent use ; but 
when calisthenics are being practised as such, I am 
of the opinion that the music necessary to the defini- 
tion of a rhythmical accompaniment should not be 
supplied by the performers themselves. In order 
to supply the necessary accompaniment, a musical 
instrument may be used. If a piano 
or organ should not be available, the 
mouth organ, metalophone, or even the tap of a toy 
drum, will be found serviceable. Failing these, one 
half of the class may sing the accompaniment while 
the other silently practise the exercises. By this 
means they can study the actions of the others and 
learn sufficient for their performance when the others 
have finished. 




SYLLABUS FOR GRADED SCHOOLS. 63 



CHAPTER X. 

SYLLABUS OF MUSIC FOB GRADED SCHOOLS. 

REFERENCE has already been made to the division 
of the system into " Steps," and the necessity of 
adhering to the plan of teaching contained therein. 
In order to adapt the system to the ordinary divisions 
of Public and High Schools, a more minute sub- 
division is necessary. Some writers favour the plan 
of teaching music in three divisions only, viz., Primary, 
Intermediate, and Advanced, and combining several 
classes of various grades under each division. Under 
exceptional circumstances this may be a convenient 
arrangement,' but it has numerous disadvantages. 
Pupils who have already mastered the elements of 
the " step " are compelled to practice with others who 
have not, which is liable to induce lack of interest in 
the one class, and mere dependence and rote-singing 
in the other. There is also the additional disadvan- 
tage of loss of time in combining several classes in 
one room, and the increased difficulty of securing and 
maintaining discipline in large classes. Better results 
can be secured when the exercises are adapted to the 
ability of each class, and superintended by the regular 



64 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

teacher. This will necessitate the division of the 
subject into at least eight separate grades, in accord- 
ance with the classification usually adopted in grading 
the ordinary subjects of the school curriculum. While 
the classification is practically the same in all Cana- 
dian Public Schools, there exists a lack of uniformity 
in the terminology employed to designate the various 
classes. In order to prevent the confusion inseparable 
from an adoption of the terminology of any particular 
locality, we will simply provide a syllabus for 1st 
Division, 2nd Division, etc. This can be adapted to 
any system of grading which may be desired. The 
subject has been divided into six branches, each of 
which should receive special attention. 

Many teachers devote the time of the music lesson 
almost exclusively to sight-singing and the practice 
of songs, to the exclusion of ear exercises and time 
drill. In order to avoid this error, a monthly review 
should be held and marks given in each subject 
according to the degree of proficiency attained. This 
plan has been found to produce excellent results 
wherever tried v The pupils like to know exactly how 
they stand in all subjects, and when poor marks are 
given in any, an improvement is always noticeable at 
next review. 

The following will be found useful as a guide in 
preparing for reviews. The subject of voice-training 
is placed last, and pupils must be cautioned against 
using harsh or impure tone, as the marks for this are 
given according to the quality of the tone shown 
in the previous subjects, 



SYLLABUS FOR GRADED SCHOOLS. 65 

MAXIMUM. 

Modulator exercises - 8 

Time " 8 

Sight-singing " 8 

Ear " 8 

Prepared song - 8 

Voice-training 10 

Total - 50 



DIVISION I. 

MODULATOR. To sing from teacher's pointing, in any key^ 
exercises on the DOH and SOH chords, including the upper and 
lower octaves of the tones d, m, s, t, r. 

TIME. To sing from pointing on blackboard, on one tone, 
exercises containing full-pulse, half-pulse, and continued tones. 

To write on slates, from teacher's dictation, examples of two, 
three, and four-pulse measure. 

SIGHT-SINGING. To sing from blackboard, phrases of four, six, 
or eight tones composed of the tones, d, m, s, t, r, in any easy 
position. 

EAR EXERCISES. To tell, by ear, the name of any one of above 
tones, sung to LAA or numbers. 

To imitate in correct tune and time, simple phrases of from three 
to six tones, containing divided pulses. 

PREPARED SONG. To be sung to words, with neatness of articula- 
tion, and soft, pure tone, an action-song learnt by rote. 

To sing to words, a simple song composed of the tones d, m, s, t, r, 
learnt by note. 

VOICE-TRAINING. To sing all exercises and songs with softness 
and purity of tone, the mouth being opened neatly and naturally, 
and the tone produced well forward in the mouth. 

NOTE. The work prescribed for this grade has been made 
exceedingly simple, in order that every child may be enabled to 
accomplish it. Teachers will guard against attempting anything 
more difficult, as it is important that, at this early stage, the 
musical faculty, however dull, should be awakened and developed. 
Pupils who sing out of tune must listen attentively for some time, 
and will soon be enabled to sing with the others. 



66 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

DIVISION II. 

MODULATOR. To sing from teacher's pointing easy exercises 
containing all the tones of the major diatonic scale. 

TIME. To sing on one tone to time-names, laa, or sol-fa syllables, 
exercises containing full-pulse, half-pulse, pulse-and-half, and con- 
tinued tones, and full-pulse silences, written in two, three, or four- 
pulse measure. 

SIGHT-SINGING. To sing from blackboard easy phrases, con- 
taining any tones of the major scale. 

EAR EXERCISES. To tell by ear the name of any one tone of a 
phrase sung to laa, or numbers, the teacher previously sol-faing the 
tones of the DOH chord. 

PREPARED SONG. To contain the tones of second step of the 
Tonic Sol-fa system, viz.: d, m, e, t, r, learnt by note, and may 
include divided pulses. 

Attention to be given to accent, enunciation, phrasing, quality of 
tone, and expression. 

VOICE-TRAINING. Same as for Division i. 



DIVISION III. 

MODULATOR. To sing from teacher's pointing, in any key, 
exercises of moderate difficulty containing leaps to all tones of the 
major scale, with special reference to fah and lah. 

TIME. To sing on one tone to time-names, or laa, sol-fa syl- 
lables, exercises containing divisions of time prescribed for Division 
II. with the addition of quarter-pulse tones and silent half-pulses. 

SIGHT-SINGING. (a) To sing from blackboard, exercises of mod- 
erate difficulty containing any tones of the major scale, (b) To 
sing from books any exercises containing the tones of the second 
step, but no divided pulses. 

EAR EXERCISES. (a) To tell by ear the name of any one tone of 
a phrase sung to laa or numbers, the key being frequently changed. 
(b) To sing from teacher's dictation, simple phrases of three or four 
tones, j e., the teacher says d m r, pupils think the phrase, then sing 
in tune to syllables d m r. (c) To tell by ear, and sing to time- 
names, a short phrase containing any divisions of time mentioned 
above. 



SYLLABUS FOR GRADED SCHOOLS. 67 

PREPARED SONG. To sing from books any simple school song 
learnt by note. Attention to be given to accent, enunciation, 
phrasing, quality of tone, and expression. 

VOICE-TRAINING. Same as for Division I. and II., with addition 
of short tuning exercises in two parts. 



DIVISION IV. 

MODULATOR. To sing from teacher's pointing in any suitable 
key, exercises containing difficult leaps to any tones of the major 
scale. 

To sing from teacher's pointing with two pointers, simple exer- 
cises in two parts. 

TIME. To sing on one tone to time-names, laa or sol-fa syllables, 
and afterwards to sing, in correct tune, simple exercises containing 
any divisions of time specified for Divisions I, II, III. 

SIGHT-SINGING. To sing from blackboard, in correct time and 
tune, easy exercises containing any tones of the scale, with con- 
tinued tones, but no divided pulses. 

EAR EXERCISES. (a) To tell by ear the sol-fa names of any three 
tones in stepwise order, sung to laa, or any other syllable, (b) To 
sing from teacher's dictation phrases of three or four syllables con- 
taining intervals of moderate difficulty, (c) To tell by ear, and sing 
to time-names, a short phrase containing any divisions of time 
mentioned above. 

PREPARED SONG. To sing from books, in two parts, any easy 
school song containing the tones of the third step, and easy 
divisions of the pulse. Attention to be given to accent, enuncia- 
tion, phrasing, quality of tone and expression. 

VOICE-TRAINING. To practice exercises in correct breathing and 
tone production, with fair command of voice and attention to piano 
and forte. 

NOTE. Where the word sing is used above, singing to sol-fa 
syllables only is implied.' 

The syllabus for Divisions V. to VIII. will be found in Part II. 



68 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

CHAPTER XI. 

NOTES ON DIVISION I. 
FIRST LESSON IN TUNE. 

FIRST STEP THE f n ow i n g j s a condensed sketch of 
MODULATOR. c ^ . 

a first lesson in tune as actually given to 

a class of pupils in the Primary Grade : 
m' 

INTRODUCTION OF SUBJECT, (a) 

Teacher. We are now about to have our first 

HOW lesson in music, but before we begin, I want you 

to tell me just what you think music is. Is it 

something you can see ? or taste ? or hear ? 

Class. Something we can hear. 

Teacher. Yes; music is something we can hear. 
What do we call anything which we can hear ? 

SOH Class. Sound. 

Teacher. Now I will drop this pointer on the 
desk, and you will tell me what you hear. (Drops 
it.) Was that a sound ? 
M E Class. Yes. 

Teacher. Was it music ? 
Class. No. 

Teacher. Then, clearly, all sounds are not music. 
UUn Now listen while I sing a little piece, and tell me 

what kind of sound you hear. (Sings short, familiar 
air.) What kind of sound was that ? 

. Class. Nice sound, sweet sound, etc. 

Teacher. What kind of sound did yon hear when 
g, I dropped the pointer ? 

Class. Rough sound, noisy sound. 

Teacher. Yes; all sweet, pleasant sounds are 
called music, and rough, 'harsh sounds are called 
P1| noise. (6) 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 69 

INTRODUCTION OF DOH. 

Teacher. Now that we have found out that music is sweet sounds, 
we will try and make some of those sweet sounds. You will listen 
while I sing one sound, and then you will sing it after me. (Sings 
ah, softly at moderately low pitch. Pupils imitate, and repeat.) 

Teacher. You will now listen while I sing two tones, and tell me 
whether they are the same in sound. (Sings same ah twice.) Did 
you notice any difference between those two tones ? 

Class. No, they are the same. 

Teacher. Now try once more. 

INTRODUCTION OF SOH. (c) 

(Sings to syllable ah, two tones doh and soh, i.e., the first ah given, 
and another a fifth higher.) Did you notice any difference between 
those two ? 

Class. Yes ; one was higher than the other. 

Teacher. Quite right. I will now give you the names of those 
tones. The low one we call doh, the high one soh. Now sing after 
me (sings d s and pupils imitate several times). I will now write 

them on the blackboard j Writes ?. I and you will sing them 

as I point. (Points to notes in any order while pupils sing as 
directed.) 

INTRODUCTION OF ME. 

Now you will listen while I sing to ah and tell me which of those 
tones I sing last, (Sings d s d to ah, then s d s, pupils naming 
last tone sung.) You seem to know those two very well. Try once 
more. (Sings d s m to ah.) (d) Now tell me which tone I sang last. 

Class. Doh, soh, new tone, various answers. 

Teacher. You do not seem to be quite sure this time; try again. 
(Repeats until pupils have all discovered that the last is a new tone.) 

Teacher. Can you tell me whether the new tone is above or below 
doh ? above or below soh ? 

Class. Between the two. 

Teacher. Quite correct. I will now write it for you and you will 

( * 

sing from my pointing. 4 Writes m [ Gives tone doh ; class imi- 



tate and attempt to sing each tone as pointed. 



70 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

MENTAL EFFECT OF TONES. 

Teacher. You seem to find it rather hard to sing them in any 
order, but I think when we learn something more about them you 
will find it much easier to sing them. Can you tell me if there are 
any little boys in this room so much alike that you can't tell one 
from another ? 

Class. No, they are all different. 

Teacher. Just so. When you look at a boy, you see at a glance 
what sort of a look he has on his face ; some boys have a nice, bright 
look, others a quiet, calm look, and others a firm, determined kind 
of look. It is just the same with those tones we have been singing, 
each has a character different from the others. You will now sing 
as I point, and think more particularly of doh while you sing, and 
tryjto tell me what kind of tone it is. (Points while class sing, giv- 
ing prominence to doh.) Now can you tell me what kind of tone 
doh is ? (Class will not answer correctly at once, but as a rule their 
answers will give some idea of the real character of the tone.) 

Teacher. I will now ask you to compare this tone with something 
you have already seen. Most of you have seen a mountain, a strong, 
firm, solid mountain. You have also seen a fountain, with its bright, 
sparkling, dashing waters. Now sing those tones once more and 
tell me which of the two doh is like. (Class sing from pointing as 
before.) 

Teacher. Raise hands, all who think doh is like a fountain. (No 
hands are raised.) Now all who think doh is like a mountain. 
(Nearly all hands are raised.) 

Teacher. I think you are all right ; will you tell me why doh is 
like a mountain ? 

Class. Because it is strong and firm. 

Teacher. Yes ! doh is the firm tone. I will write its character 

f 8 ) 

beside it so that you will think of it when you sing. ] Writes m } 

( d/rm.J 

(e) The teacher will now proceed to develop the mental effect 
of me and soh by the same process, comparing me to mother singing 
baby to sleep, and little brother singing loudly and waking baby. 
Me is calm and gentle. Soh is bright and bold and may be com- 
pared with a bugle in contrast with a drum. 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 71 

PRACTICE. 
The character of each tone being written on the blackboard 

!a calm j 
m gentle I practice in singing slowly from teacher's pointing 
d firm ) 

must now be given slowly, in order that pupils may feel the mental 
effect of the tones as they sing. 

(a) This is intended to awaken interest. 

(6) By this definition of music, pupils commit themselves, and 
later on when they sing loudly or coarsely, as children will, if not 
checked, their teacher will appeal to their former definition of music, 
and enquire whether they are now making sweet sounds. 

(c) Soh, being next in importance to doh, is next in order of 
introduction. 

(d) Sing the new tone very softly in order that the dullest pupil 
may recognize its introduction. 

(e) The earnest teacher will have no difficulty in inventing sug- 
gestive illustrations of the points to be developed, but in no case 
may the pupils be told the character of the tones. 

NOTE. In the above lesson the correct answers by pupils are 
given, but teachers must not expect such answers at first. The 
teacher must take what answers the pupils may give and lead them, 
as only a teacher can, into the desired channel. 

FIRST LESSON IN TIME. 

The following is a condensed sketch of a first lesson 
in time, as given to a class of pupils in the second 
school-year. It will be useful, where the teaching of 
music is being introduced for the first time, to classes 
of this or senior grades ; but where music is taught as 
a regular subject, during the first session of primary 
classes, the alternative lesson given below will be 
found more suited to the pupils' requirements. 

Before proceeding to give the following lesson, the 
teacher must be prepared to sing some well-known 
tune with divided pulses and well marked accent 



72 THE TEACHER S HANDBOOK. 

Teacher. In our previous lesson we learned to sing in tune the 
tones doh, me, sob, but in music there is some- 



INTRODUCTION. j thing to be studied besides tune. Listen while 
I sing and notice whether there is anything 



wrong with this tune, as it is sung. (Sings National Anthem with 
time and accent altered). Did that tune sound all right ? 

Class. No. It was all out of time. 

Teacher. Quite right. I will sing it once more while you listen. 
(Sings in strict time.) Did it sound any better last time ? 

Class. Yes. You sang in time. 

Teacher. I may now tell you that the " something besides Tune" 
which I referred to is Time. 

I will now sing a tune which you all know, and while I do so you 
will clap hands gently. (Sings, " Home, Sweet Home," while 
pupils beat time as directed.) Can you tell me what it was that 
made you keep time together so nicely ? 

Class. It was the singing. 

Teacher. Yes. There is something in every 



PULSES, I tune which will enable us to keep time. This 

we call thepulse of the tune. I will sing another 



tune and you will beat time as before, that is, you will find out the 
pulses of the tune. (Sings several tunes of varying character in 
order to develop the fact that pulses exist in all tunes.) 

Teacher. When I sang the first tune, did you 
notice whether you clapped hands for every 



REGULARITY OF 
PULSES. 



tone that was sung ? 



Class. Yes, we did. (This answer, though incorrect, is almost 
invariably given.) 

Teacher. I will sing it once more, beating time for every tone. 
(Sings as indicated, pupils notice the incongruous and unnatural 
method of beating.) Is that how you beat time ? 

Class. No. We beat time more smoothly. 

Teacher. Your beating seemed more natural. Can you tell me 
whether the beats were regular or irregular ? 

Class. They were regular. 

Teacher. You will now find] out the pulses in several tunes, and 
notice whether they occur as regularly as before. (Sings examples 
of quick and slow tunes while pupils beat time.) Were the pulses 
regular in all of these tunes ? 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 73 

Class. Yes, but some tunes were slower than others. 
Teacher. This is a very important fact. I will illustrate it for 
you. You must all have noticed how a clock ticks and also how a 
watch ticks. Do both tick regularly ? 

Class. Yes ; but the watch ticks the faster. 

Teacher. It is exactly so with the pulses in music. In some 
tunes they move slowly, in others quickly, but in all they move 
regularly. 

There is still something to learn about pulses. 
We have found that they are all equal in length. 
Now we will see whether they are equal in 



ACCENT OF PULSES. 



strength. (Sings an example of tune in duple time.) Did you notice 



any difference in the strength of the pulses? 



Class. Every alternate pulse was strong. 



Teacher. Yes. The order of the pulses was strong, weak, strong, 



weak, You will now sing to the syllable laa after I have given you 



(Sings LAA, laa, LAA, laa, repeatedly, after which 



pupils imitate.) All exercises in time only must be sung on one tone 



in order that it may be free from difficulties of 




tune. When pupils can sing readily with alter- 
nate strong and weak accents proceed to the 
notation of time. 

Teacher. I will now give you the signs for the pulses. 
The pulse which has the strong accent is represented by an up- 
right bar ( | ) and the weak accent by the colon ( ; ) 

writes | : I : I : I : II! 

The double bar simply indicates the close of the exercise. 

You will now sing as I point to the accent marks. (Class sing 
as directed, care being observed in sustaining the weak pulses for 
full length of time.) 

Teacher. You notice how nicely the strong 



MEASURE. 



pulses seem to measure off the music into equal 
divisions. The space from one strong accent 
to the next strong accent we call a measure. Count the pulses and 
tell me how many we have in each measure. 
Class. We have two pulses in each measure. 
Teacher. This we call two pulse measure. 



74 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

In order to develop the accent, the above will now be contrasted 
with three-pulse measure in which the accents occur as strong 
weak, weak. 

Written I t I . . 



PRACTICE, 



Now write four two-pulse measures, with one 
note in each pulse. 



:r |m :r Id :t. Id :d 



II 



Each note is sung loudly or softly according to the accent- 
mark which immediately precedes it. 

i i Teacher. We have a series of time-names 

TlME-NAMES. I which you will find helpful in keeping correct 

I I time. When we have one note in each pulse 



we call it taa. (Writes taa under each note, gives pattern, and 
pupils imitate.) 

Teacher. Listen while I sing and tell me whether you notice any 
change. (Sings in one tone, prolonging the first tone in second and 
last measures.) 

Class. You made some tones too long. 
TWO-PULSE TONES. | Teacher, In which measure did I do so ? 

Class. In the second and fourth measures. 



Teacher. I will give you the time-names for the prolonged tones 
and you will imitate. (Sings taa taa taa-aa taa taa taa-aa, and 
class imitate.) 

Teacher. The sign for a continued tone is the dash ( ). (Rubs 
out fourth and last notes and substitutes the dash.) 

Pupils will now be drilled in singing from teacher's pointing, 
using time-names and laa. 

ALTERNATIVE FIRST LESSON IN TIME. 

(FOR INFANT CLASSES ONLY.) 

Teacher. I am now going to sing a song which you all know, and 
while I sing you will clap hands softly. 

(Sings bright kindergarten song in duple measure while pupils 
beat time.) 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 75 

Teacher. You will now sing the song yourselves and clap hands 
as you did before. 

(Pupils sing as desired, while the teacher draws an upright line 
as the accented notes are sung.) 



! I I 



Teacher. While you were singing I drew some lines on the 
board, and now I will tell you what we will do with them, we will 
make houses with them. Just count them, please, and tell me how 
many houses we have. 

(Class count as teacher points, one, two, three, four.) 

Teacher. Yes ; we have four houses with a big double wall at 
the end. Can you tell me how many rooms we have in each house ? 

Class. One room in each house. 

Teacher. I am sure none of you little folks would care to live in 
a house with only one room. Can any one tell me how we can 
make these into two-roomed houses ? 

Class. Build a wall in the middle. 

Teacher. Yes ; that would do nicely. (Writes a short thick line 
in each house.) 



Now we have two rooms in each house. I think that in every 
house we should have a play -room for little boys and girls, don't 
you-think so too ? 

Class. (Smiling,) yes ! 

Teacher. We all know that when little folks are playing, they do 
not like to be kept too quiet, but enjoy making a noise and having 
a nice time, so we will have one of these rooms for a play-room, 
a noisy room. Suppose we decide on the one after the big, high 
wall for our noisy room. (Points to the first pulse in each measure, 
while pupils say noisy room.) 

Teacher. I want some one to point out all the noisy rooms. 
Who will do it ? 

(All are eager to point, teacher selects several who do it correctly 
in turn.) 



76 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

Teacher. Now listen while I sing, making all the rooms into 
noisy rooms. Does that sound nicely ? 

Class. No. 

Teacher. Listen again and tell me whether you think this sounds 
better. (Sings with alternate strong and weak accents). 

Class. That sounds better ; we like it better. 

Teacher. What difference did I make ? 

Class. You made noisy rooms and quiet ones. 

Teacher. We will take the rooms behind the little wall for our 
quiet ones. Please name them as I count. 

(Pupils name as requested.) 

Teacher. Who will point out all the quiet rooms ? 

(Pupils point out all the quiet or noisy rooms as desired.) 

Teacher. There is just one thing about our houses that I don't 
like. When we point from a noisy to a quiet room, we have to skip 
over the little wall. How can we improve that ? 

Class. Make a door through it. 

Teacher. Yes, that will do nicely. 

Erase part of each short line, leaving the required sign for the 
weak accent, thus : 



Teacher. Now, sing while I point to each of the rooms. (Sings 
pattern on one tone which pupils imitate). 

We will now place one little boy in each of the rooms. 

Writes, M :m | s :s | s :m 



When we have a boy in the noisy room, what sort of boy will 
he be? 

Class. A noisy boy. 

Teacher. Show me all the noisy boys. All the quiet boys ? 

(Pupils point as desired.) 

Teacher. When we have just one boy in a room we call him TAA. 
j I (Sings TAA taa TAA tad]. 

TIME-NAMES. (Pupils imitate.) 

' I Teacher. Now sing the syllables on one tone. 



CONTINUED TONES. 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 77 

(Class sing as desired.) Listen while I sing it 
and tell me whether I make any change. (Sings 
on one tone, continuing the first a in second 
measure, and first d in fourth measure.) 

Class. You missed some of the boys. You made some longer 
than others. 

Teacher. Quite right. This sob (indicates it) went right into the 
next room and doh did the same. We will put away the two which 
I did not sing. (Erases second s and last d). When we want a 
little boy to get through from a noisy room to a quiet room we 
will lay down a little carpet for him to walk on. (Writes continua- 
tion mark in empty pulses.) 

Listen while I sing this and tell me what I sing in the rooms with 
the carpet. (Sings to time-names.) 

Class. You sang aa. 

Teacher. Quite right. You will now sing it as I did. (Class 
sing as desired.) 

The exercise will now be sol-faed on one tone, then in tune from 
teacher's pattern. 

By the above method, the pupils are led from point 
to point, as in an interesting story, and unconsciously 
learn the first elements of time, without being bur- 
dened with their nomenclature. The lesson is given 
in detail, all the above answers having actually been 
given by pupils of the infant class. The play-names 
used may be retained for some time, until the pupils 
can read from notes, then, as a reward for diligence, 
they may be told the real names, pulse, measure, etc. 

The first introduction of a subject only occurs at 
intervals, and daily drill must succeed every such 
introduction. As the tfme available for teaching 
music is necessarily short, it will be our endeavor to 
assist the teacher to make the best possible use of it, 
by giving examples of methods of drilling in all the 
various topics. 



78 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

MODULATOR DRILL. 

Use a first step modulator, which is composed of 
the tones d n S only. If a printed step modulator 
has not already been procured, an excellent substitute 
can be made by writing the names of the tones in 
colors on the blackboard. If blackboard space is 
scarce, a movable modulator can be made of black 
Bristol-board, with letters cut from colored surface 
paper, and pasted on. The colors recommended are, 
doh red ; me blue ; and soh bright yellow. 

In first step exercises doh is always sung without 
difficulty, soh and me require special drill. The 
following illustrates the method : 
DRILL ON SOH. 

Teacher sounds doh about pitch of D. (Pupils imitate softly.) 
Question on the mental effect of soh. Give hand-sign for soh. 
Teacher sings dmd; smd; mmd; dmm; mdm. After sing- 
ing each group of three tones, give hand-sign for soh, indicating 
that pupils will sing soh. In this exercise they confine their atten- 
tion to the tone being studied, and become familiar with its 
mental effect. Now point phrases in which soh predominates. 

EXAMPLE : 

dsmssdsdsmsdsnids. 

Question on mental effect of me as above. 
Sing dsm; mds; smd; dms; dds; ssd; 
Pupils sing me from hand-sign after each group 
of three. 

Now point phrases in which me predominates. 
EXAMPLE : 

dnmdsnsdn'msnmdsrnd. 

Change key frequently, and vary the order in which the tones are 
approached. When mistakes are made, do not tell pupils to sing 
higher or lower, but question on mental effect, as, " Was that bright 
enough for soh ! " " Did you sing that gently enough for me 1 " If 




NOTES ON DIVISION I. 79 

this fails, the tone may be sung by the teacher, but not unless 
absolutely necessary. 

NOTE. See " Modulator, Drill " page 25. 

SIGHT-SINGING. 
EXAMPLES OF METHOD. 

Teacher writes on board dmdsmdsd. Sings doh, key D. 
Pupils imitate. 

Teacher. Now sing from my pointing. 

Class sing d m correctly, but sing second d like soh. 

Teacher erases first and second doll's and rewrites with bright red 
crayon. Can you tell me what color this first doh is written with ? 

Class (eagerly) Red. 

Teacher. And is the second doh of the same color ? 

Class. Yes. 

Teacher. If the color of both don's is the same, do you not think 
that the sound of both should be the same ? 

Class. Yes ; they should have the same sound. 

Teacher. Now try again, and be careful to give the second doh 
the same sound as the first. 

Class sing correctly until second a is reached. 

Teacher writes both soh's with bright yellow crayon and reasons 
as before. Also draws attention to bright character of soh. 

When the exercise has been correctly sung by the entire class, 
the boys and girls may be asked to sing separately, next by one 
row at a time, and finally by individual pupils. 

When the exercise has been correctly sol-faed, it should be sung 
to laa. 

KEY EXERCISES. KEYS C TO G. 

dssnsdmmd 
mdsmddssd 
ssnsddmsm 
dmdsmssdd 
ddmdsmdsm 

In teaching sight-singing, Tune and Time may 
occasionally be combined in such a manner that only 
one topic will demand attention. 



8o THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

EXAMPLE : 



Teacher M g : | g :m I fl II 

(I 



writes 



Class sing to time-names, then to syllables in tune, 
making s only one pulse in length. This is a common 
mistake with young pupils. Teacher shows that s 
should be continued through the fourth pulse, and 
sung soh oh. It may be useful to write oh under the 
continuation-mark. When this has been sung cor- 
rectly the tune should be changed, the time-form is 
retained. 

EXAMPLE : 

a. Id :m Is : Is :m 



d :s In : In :s Id : 

n :d Is : Is :d |m : 

d. Is :m Is : In :d |n : II 

NOTE. See " Sight-Singing," page 79. 
TIME. 

The object of time-exercises at this stage should 
be 

ist To develop an appreciation of the regularity 
of pulses and accents in music. 

2nd. To enable pupils to distinguish between tones 
of one, two or more pulses in length. 

3rd. To train the eye to read the notation of above 
divisions of rhythm. 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 8 1 

EXAMPLES OF METHOD. 

Pupils clap hands softly while singing taa, taa, taa 
on one tone, taken at any rate indicated by teacher's 
pointer. When a change is made to a faster or slower 
rate of speed, the singing must cease while the teacher 
counts a few pulses at the rate required. 

Vary the exercise by changing* the measure fre- 
quently. Pupils count ONE, two, ONE, two ; or ONE, 
two, three, ONE, two, three, with emphasis on ONE. 

When this has been sufficiently well sung, pupils may 
be requested to sing two-pulse measure or three-pulse 
measure, the teacher simply indicating the rate of 
movement without giving any special sign for the 
strong accent. 

Short exercises containing few difficulties will be 
found the most useful in training the eye and ear in 
teaching time. 

Write the following exercise on the blackboard : 
Ex. i. KEY D. 

Id :m 1s :s Is :m Id : 



Question on Measure, Accent, Length of Tones and 
Time-names. 

Direct pupils to sing to Time-names on one tone, 
to sol-fa on one tone and to sol-fa in tune. When 
this has been sung successfully, intimate that a change 
will be made, and request pupils to watch closely 
while this is being done. Alter the exercise into 
Ex. 2. KEY D. 

d :m |s : Is :m |d : II 



82 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

Question on alteration. Direct pupils to sing to 
Time-names and sol-fa, as above. Whenever the 
exercise has been correctly sung, it should be altered 
and taught as above. The Time-names may be grad- 
ually discontinued, as the pupils gain confidence in 
sol-faing at sight. The order in which the tones are 
first given, should' be preserved throughout (repeated 
tones excepted), in order that no difficulties of tune 
may interfere with the study of time. 

The " unexpected " will be the chief source of 
difficulty in this form of exercise. It has been said 
that " the ear remembers and expects" This truism 
will serve to explain one-half of the difficulties to be 
met with in teaching music. Let the above exercise 
be altered into 

|d. :n Is : In : |d : M 

and note the result. It will, almost invariably, be 
noticed that the m in third measure will receive one 
pulse only, and displacement of accent will conse- 
quently ensue. The explanation of this is to be found 
in a comparison of the first two with the last two 
measures. Every tune, however sim- 
ple, divides naturally into at least two 
sections, which should be combined according to a 
definite rhythmic or melodic form. In \hzfirst section 
of the above exercise, we have an example of the 
rhythm taa, taa, taa, aa, which is followed by a change 
of rhythm in the second section. In singing this, the 
ear remembers the rhythm of the first section and ex- 
pects the same in the second section, hence the surprise 




NOTES ON DIVISION I. 



and consequent confusion when taa, aa is met with 
instead of taa, taa. Exercises of this sort should be 
freely used in order that pupils may form the habit 
of singing what is written for them regardless of the 
unexpected. 

Example of exercises to be studied on above plan : 
Ex. i. KEY D. Primary two-pulse measure. 



a. 


d 


m 


s 


s 


s 


m 


d 





b. 


d 


m 


s 





P1 





d 





c. 


d 





m 





s 


m 


d 





d 


d 


m 


s 


s 


PI 





d 


, 


e. 


d 


m 


s 


- I- 


PI 


d 





f 


d 


- h 


m 


s 


PI 


d 





& 


d 





P1 


s 


s 


m 


d 





Ex. 2. KEY D. Secondary two- pulse measure. 


a. :d 


m 





s 


PI 


d 








b. :d 


m 


P1 


s 





s 


m 


d 


c. :d 


PI 





1- 


s 


PI 





d 


d. :d 


m 


s 


s 


- h 


PI 


d 


e. :d 


m 








m 


s 


m 


d 


/ :d 


m 


PI 


s 








PI 


d 


& :d 


PI 




s 





PI 




d 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



Ex. 3. KEY C. Primary three-pulse measure, 



a. 


d :d :d 


m :m :m s :s :s 


d 1 


: -=-|| 


h 


d :- :d 


m : :m s : :s 


d 1 


: - ; -|l 


, 


d :d :d 


m : : s :s :s 


d 1 


: - ; -|| 


d. 


d :d :d 


m : :n s : :s 


d 1 


: - ; -|| 


e. 


d :- :- 


m :m :m s : : 


d' 


: - ; -|| 


/ 


d : :d 


n ;m : s :s : 


d' 


: ~ : ~ll 


g> 


d :d :- 


m : :m s :s : 


d 1 


i 

: - : ~ll 



The last example may be written in secondary three-pulse mea- 
sure by beginning on the last pulse of the measure and deducting 
one pulse from the last note, thus : 

a. :d I d :d :d I m :m :m I s :s :s I d 1 : 



Where pupils experience a difficulty in singing continued tones, 
they may be allowed to intensify the vowel sound in each continua- 
tion. In this manner a doh which is three pulses in length will be 
sung as doh-oh-oh, and me as me-ee-ee. 

SPECIMEN LESSONS. 

Before introducing the subjects contained in the 
following lessons, pupils should have had sufficient 
drill in the primary lessons in tune and time to enable 
them to read at sight exercises consisting of the three 
tones d Pi s arranged in any order, and also any com- 
binations of one and two-pulse tones in two-pulse 
measure. 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 85 

Assuming that satisfactory progress has been made 
we will now introduce the 

SECOND LESSON ON TIME. 
Write on blackboard four two-pulse measures, 



I I 



Teacher. Please sing as I point. Be careful to sing the accents 
distinctly. (Pupils sing to laa as requested.) 

Teacher. What name do we give to the space between one strong 
pulse and the next strong pulse ? 

Class. A measure. 

Teacher. How many measures have we on the board ? 

Class. Four. 

Teacher. How many pulses are contained in each measure ? 

Class. Two. 

Teacher. Will some one please point out the first measure, the 
third, etc. ? (Volunteers point out each measure as required.) 

Teacher. Name the pulses in this measure. 

Class. Strong, weak, strong, weak, etc. 

Teacher. Now listen and tell me if I sing the pulses exactly as 
we have them here. (Sings to laa with accent on first pulse of 
every group of three, LAA, laa, laa, LAA, laa, laa.) How did the 
pulses sound as I sang ? 

Class. Strong, weak, weak. 

Teacher. You will now sing them in exactly the same manner. 
(Pupils sing from pattern, teacher tapping time lightly.) 

Teacher. I will now write from your dictation the signs for the 
pulses as we have just sung them. What is the sign for the strong 
pulse ? 

Class. A bar. 

Teacher. For the weak pulse ? 

Class. A colon. 

Teacher. And what have we next ? 

Class. A weak pulse : a colon. 

Writes as directed, 



86 THE TEACHER'S HAN-DBOOK. 

Teacher. Now count and tell me how many pulses we have in 
each measure. 

Class. Three. 

Teacher. This we will call three-pulse measure. Listen while 
I sing, and tell me whether I sing two or three-pulse measure. 
(Alternates two and three-pulse measure until pupils are familiar 
with the accents in each and can detect them readily.) 

Four-pulse measure will be taught by same method, the accents 
being strong, weak, medium, weak. The sign for the medium 
accent is a short bar, thus 

I 
I 

DIVIDED PULSES. 
Write as formerly four two-pulse measures. 

d :d Id : Id :d Id : 



Teacher. Sing this exercise to time-names. Sing it to laa. (Pupils 
sing as requested). Now listen- and tell me whether I sing it 
correctly. (Sings it to laa, putting two tones in second pulse.) 
Did I make any mistake ? 

Class. Yes. 

Teacher. Will some one point out the pulse in which mistake 
was made ? How many tones did I sing in second pulse ? 

Class. Two. 

Teacher. Listen once more and tell me whether those two tones 
are equal in length. 

Class. They are equal. 

Teacher. I will now let you hear the time- name for a pulse 
divided into two equal parts, and you will sing it after me. (Sings 
TAA Taa-tai, TAA Taa-tai, and pupils imitate). Now that you can 
sing it I will show you the sign for a pulse divided into halves. 
(Writes two notes in second pulse with a period between and time- 
name underneath, thus : 

:d .d I 

Taa-tai |.) 

Practise singing to time-names and laa on one tone, and alter 
frequently, placing half-pulse and continued tones in any order. 



EXERCISES IN TIME. 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 87 

EAR EXERCISES IN TIME. 
I will now sing a phrase and you will listen 
and tell me how often you hear taa-tai. This 
is done at first on one tone to Ian and then a 
short tune containing divided pulses may be sung, if the pupils show 
sufficient aptitude in detecting taa-tai when sung on one tone. 

LESSON ON OCTAVES. 

Teacher. In our previous lessons we have studied three tones, 
but there are still several others to study. Lis- 
ten while I sing, and tell me whether you hear 
anything that sounds like a new tone. Sings to 



OCTAVE OF DOH. 



laa d m s d, in the key of D or C. 

Class. There was no new tone. 

Teacher. Listen once more (sings d m s d 1 , the last d being an 
octave higher than the first.) 

Class. The last one was a new tone. 

Teacher. Quite right. Now sing these four 



INTRODUCED BY 
EAR EXERCISES. 



tones after me. (Gives pattern and class imitate.) 
Was the new tone higher or lower than soh ? 

Class. It was higher. 

Teacher. Sing the phrase again and tell me whether it sounds 
like any of the other tones ? 

Class. It sounds like doh. 

Teacher. It really is doh, but being sung so much higher it 
sounds like a new tone. I will now explain how we happen to have 
one doh so much higher than the other. In the scale of music we 
have but seven primary tones, just the same number, you will see, 
as we have days in a week. We begin the week with Sunday, and 
end it with Saturday. When we reach the last day of the week, 
what day do we have next ? 

Class. We have Sunday again. _ 

Teacher. We do exactly the same thing with the tones . 6 

of the scale. (Draws diagram on blackboard). Here s 5 

we have the tones already learned with dots in the place ' 4 

of those not yet introduced. Can you tell me where to 
put the new doh ? d i 

Class. It should be above number seven. 

Teacher. Yes\ it is the eighth tone. (Adds d 8). The interval 



88 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

from any tone to its eighth is called an octave, -and in order to 
distinguish the upper doh we write the figure one above it, then we 
see that it has to be sung one octave above doh. (Writes d 1 .) 

Pupils will now be drilled in singing from 
teacher's pointing on the modulator, exercises 
containing the upper doh in combination with 



the other tones. 



There will be no difficulty in teaching the mental 



effect of the new tone, it being firm and strong as doh, but rather 



brighter owing to difference in pitch. 



The octaves of soh and me will next be intro- 



duced, care being taken to change the key in 



order to have the tones within the range of the 




pupils' voices. 



INTRODUCTION OF SECOND STEP. 

Teacher. How many tones have we now learnt in music ? 
Class. Three ; doh, me and soh. 

Teacher. And how many tones have we in the scale ? 
Class. Seven. 

Teacher. Now that you have studied the three named, and can 
sing them readily, we will study some of the others, and then we 
will be able to have even prettier tunes than we have been singing 
recently. 

Listen while I sing four tones, and tell me 
whether you hear any new ones. While I sing, 
I will point to each of my four fingers, and if 
you should hear a new tone you will be able to tell me on which 
number it is sung. (Sings to laa, after giving key-tone, s m s d; 
s m s m ; questioning whether new tone has been heard after singing 
each phrase. The next phrase will have the first three tones same 
as before, but the fourth will be ray, which is a fourth below soh.) 
Did you hear any new tone ? 
Class. Yes ; the fourth one. 

Teacher. Quite right. I will repeat the phrase, and you will 
sing it after me. (Class imitate as desired.) 
Can you tell me where to put the new tone, 
whether above doh or me ? 



EAR EXERCISES. 



NOTES ON DIVISION i. 89 

Class. Between doh and me. m 1 

Teacher.' That is its right place. The name of the new 
tone is ray, and I will now write it on our modulator. It is d 1 
spelt r-a-y, but as we only use the initial in our notation, we 
will write r only. (Writes r between d and m on modulator.) s 
You will now practise this new tone from my pointing. 
(Points to the tones in the following order, smsdsrrsr m 
m r d r.) You seem to have some difficulty with the new r 
tone, but I think you will find it as easy as the others when , 

I you have studied its character. Listen 
while I sing, and tell me what kind of 



1 a tone you think ray is. (Sings s m s r r 



s r m d r, emphasizing r.) Can anyone describe its character ? 

Class. Loud ; noisy. 

Teacher. Yes, I did sing it rather louder than any of the others, 
but any tone can be sung loudly equally well. Let me try and 
help you with a little illustration, One day last summer, while 
passing a nice lawn, I saw two boys. One was running around 
playing with his ball, but the other was lying asleep. The boy who 
was playing did not seem to care about playing alone, so he went 
up to the other and tried to rouse him up, but the other boy was 
too lazy, and just rubbed his eyes a little and said, " Just leave me 
alone, will you, I want to sleep." Here we have two boys, one 
dull and lazy, the other lively and rousing. Which of the two do 
you think ray is most like ? 

Class. The rousing boy. 

Teacher. Yes, ray is a rousing tone, and if you think of it as 
such you will find little difficulty in singing it when required. 
(Writes the word rousing opposite r, and drills on the modulator, 
giving prominence to the new tone.) The next tone to be introduced 
is te, which is immediately below doh. Adopt same method as in 
introducing ray, being careful to approach it from sob. The mental 
effect of te is sharp and piercing, and may be illustrated by a steam 
whistle, a pen, or a scream. 

The tones s t r will now be practised in the same manner as d m s, 
to which they are closely allied, the intervals being exactly similar. 
(See Chordal Treatment, page 16.) 



90 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

MODULATOR DRILL. 

The intervals d 1 m and 5, n are the most difficult 
in the first step, consequently should receive special 
attention. In a modulator voluntary intended to 
teach these intervals the mental effect of m should 
be clearly established, and the tone itself repeatedly 
sung, in order that it may be clearly fixed on the ear 
and mind before being approached from d' or S| 
The effect may be intensified by a pause being made 
on m wherever it occurs in the exercise. 

EXAMPLES OF EXERCISES: 

KEY D. 

dn dsmmsPisd'pimd'msd 

KEY G. 

dmdS|dmmsimsnsdS|Pimd 

It will be advisable to frequently contrast the effect 
of m with s, as s is the tone most frequently sung in 
place of m. Care must be observed 
to keep the exercises within the com- 
pass of the young voices. The extreme upper note 
which may be taken is E 1 , but until pupils have 
acquired the habit of using the upper thin register 
(see page 23) the limit may be placed at E'lz or D 1 . 
The lowest which can be taken easily by an average 
class will be about C. From this it will be seen that 
the most suitable keys in which to practise exercises 
containing upper d 1 are C, D and Efc, and for Si keys 
E, F and G. The key should be changed frequently 
and S| and d 1 should not be included in the same key. 




NOTES ON DIVISION I. 91 

The more difficult intervals should be 
noted, and one or more introduced 
into each lesson and practised thoroughly. The 
following are among the most difficult phrases to be 
found in the first step : d 1 S d ; d 1 m s ; d*m d 1 ; 
m d 1 d ; s, m s ; s, m d ; m s t d ; s, s d. 

The introduction of the SOH chord 
will permit of much greater melodic 



variety than is possible when the tones of the Don 
chord alone are available. When the tones are 
judiciously combined, many beautiful and pleasing 
melodies can be formed, which will serve to create 
a renewed interest in the study of the music lesson. 
Necessarily, new difficulties will also be introduced, 
but these need not cause any feeling of apprehension, 
provided the First Step has been thoroughly taught. 
At each lesson, one of the new tones at least should 
receive special treatment, in order to establish its 
mental effect irrespective of the interval by which it 
may be approached. The following will illustrate 
the method of " driving home " or " rubbing in," as it 
is sometimes termed : Teacher questions regarding 

I the mental effect of ray, sings 3 m s r, 
" RUBBING IN RAY. . i r j i- 
_J I gives manual sign for ray and directs 

pupils to sing ray only whenever the manual sign is 
given. The teacher will then sing the following, or 
similar phrases, giving the sign for pupils to sing ray 
after each phrase : 3 mdr; rsrm; d m r s ; 
sd'sm; d'td's; m r d t, ; r m d s ; 
s t t s ; r d t, d. By this method pupils will 



92 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

become familiar with ray approached from any of 
the tones already studied. 

The next process will be to imitate phrases similar 
to the above, singing ray from the manual sign after 
each phrase, thus : Teacher sings r Pi d S, pupils 
imitate ; teacher gives sign for ray, pupils sing ray. 
When this has been sufficiently practised, pupils will 
be prepared to sing exercises of moderate difficulty 
from the modulator. At first it is advisable to return 
to the new tone frequently, pausing slightly or repeat- 
ing the tone to allow its effect to be clearly felt 
EXAMPLE : 

KEYS C, D. 

Idmdslr mdlr smld r Imsrr 



d rrt.lr rs mlr Imdr Ismr 



[sd'td'lsrr Idmr Irrndtildrtidlrrd- 
The same method applies to the teaching of te, 
the manual signs, etc., being first given, then modula- 
tor exercises with te predominating. It will be 
noticed that the singing of te will unconsciously lead 
to the anticipation of the doh. above. This leading 
tendency is found in other tones of the scale, but is 

(LEADING TONE ] most stron ^y ^ m te. From this 
I peculiar characteristic te has been 

termed the " leading tone " of the scale. The ear can- 
not be satisfied with a tune or phrase which ends on 
te. In order to satisfy the ear, and secure a feeling 
of completeness at the close of a phrase, te should 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 93 

invariably be followed by the doh immediately above. 
This leading tendency must not, however, be too 
freely indulged in throughout the exercises, as the 
thing to be taught is not how to sing t d 1 , but how 
to prevent its being sung when another interval is 
required. The best means of accomplishing this will 
be found in dwelling on the SOH chord. This makes 
the singing of s t r 1 as simple as d ro S, the intervals 
being exactly similar. 

EXAMPLE : 
KEYC. 
Id n d s Is s r r Is t r 1 t It r 1 s I 



t t s t |d' t d 1 r 1 |t r 1 r 1 d 1 |t d 1 - 

I I I 

d 1 s m s Is r t| r |t| d r ti Id n r- 

r s t s Is r ti r Id m r ti |d 



The following are a few of the more difficult phrases 
to be found in the second step, for subsequent practice : 
s n r, m s t, t n, t, m, m t, s t|, d 1 r, 
m r d', r t, t r, d t d 1 . 



SIGHT-SINGING. 



In teaching Sight-Singing the same 
FIRST STEP. difficu i ties have to be met as in Mod- 



ulator Drill. At each lesson, one or more of the 
difficult intervals of the step shd*uld be introduced 
and practised thoroughly. The following exercises 
must be preceded by the exercises on d n S and the 
lesson on Octaves : 



94 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

KEYS C, D, E. RANGE d TO d 1 . 

dsmsd'd'smsdsmd 1 
mmds md'm s d d 1 s m d 
dmdsmd'dmsmssd 
sd'smd'sdmdsd'sm 
d 1 s m m d 1 d s s d' s m s d 1 
mdsmd'mdsd'ms sd 1 

KEYS E'7, E, F, G. RANGE s, TO s. 

n 

m d S| Si d Si d m r S| m m d 
dmssidsidsmms, md 
d S| d m S| S| d m S| m s s : d 

The * denotes the points of difficulty. 
Exercises containing several varieties of tune may 
now be combined under one rhythmic form. 
Ex. i. KEYS C, D, EJ7. RANGE d TO d 1 . 

a. Id :m |s : Id 1 :s |m : 

b. |m :s Id 1 : |m :d Is 1 : 



|m :i 
s :m |d' : Id 1 :s 



m :s |d' : Id 1 :m |s 
d :d' |s : |m :d' d 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 



95 



Ex. 2. KEYS El?, E, F, G. RANGE a, TO a. 

a. :d Is, :S|.S||d :m Is :s.s |d 



b. :si Id :d.d |m :d Is :m.m d 

c. :m|d :d.m|s :m Is :s.m|d 

d. :d|m :s,m|d :si Id :m.s|d 

e. :m Is :m,d|s :n Is :m.s d 



SECOND STEP. 



In this step the same methods will 
be adopted as in the previous step, 
the exercises being preceded by modulator drill on 
the new tones te and ray. 
KEYS C, D. RANGE t, TO r 1 . 

dmssstr'td'smrd 
smrsrmdrtidsrd 
dsmsrsdt|dsrt|d 
mdrrtirs-s rt ( rd 

KEYS Eb, E, F, G. RANGE s, TO s. 

dtjdsidrtidsrmsd 



KEYS G, A, BJ7. RANGE m, TO m. 

d s n, S| d t| d Si ti r s> ti d 
BI d t| d r ti s, d m, m, s, s, d 
dmd S|mr dsirmrtid 



96 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

KEYS E|? TO G. RANGE s, TO s. 

a. :d |m :r .r |d :s |d :t,.t,|d n 
l>. :m Id :t,,d|r :t. Id :s,.S||d 
^. :d Is :m.r d :r Is, :d.t| d 



s |m :d.r m :d |r :m.r|d 



TONES REPRESENTED 
BY COLORS. 



Among those who have investigated 
the matter, there can be no doubt 
regarding the advantage to be derived from the use 
of colors in teaching sight-singing. The object of a 
color-scale should be to convey, through the eye to 
the mind, a distinct impression of the effect of the 
tones represented. We have discussed the appropri- 
ateness of certain colors, with a large number of artists 
and teachers, and, as a result, have decided to adopt 
the following scale : 

t Purple. 

1 Indigo. 

S Yellow. 

f Green. 

m Blue. 

r Orange. 

d Red. 

It will be noticed that the prismatic colors have 
been selected, with a slight modification of their 
natural order. Some writers have advocated the 
retaining of the natural order, but we cannot reconcile 
the calm, gentle effect of me with the brightness of yel- 
low ; or the bright, bold effect of soh with the peaceful 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 97 

effect of blue. In practice it is not advisable to write 
all the tones by means of colors, but only those which 
occasion a difficulty in singing. 

EXAMPLE : 

d m d s d 1 m s d. 

Suppose the above ^exercise written 
with ordinary white crayon on the 



blackboard, and pupils have made the mistake of 

* 

singing 3 instead of m. Let each m be written with 
blue crayon, and pupils led to notice the oneness of 
color and the oneness of sound. When the second 
m is reached the color will recall the impression of 
the first, and almost invariably will lead to its being 

I CONTRAST OF I correct ty sung. The same result may 
COLORS. | be obtained by contrasting s with m. 
Let s be written with yellow, and m with blue. Con- 
trast the colors, and show pupils that they have 
actually been singing the same sound for the blue 
note as for the yellow. They will thus be put on 
their guard, and will not be liable to sing the same 
sound for two notes differing so widely in appearance. 
The same methods will apply to all other tones. 

TIME. 

When pupils have been well drilled in exercises 
containing whole-pulse tones and continued tones, 
and have received the first lesson in divided pulses, 
exercises containing divided pulses should be freely 
introduced. These will at first be taught on one tone 
only, but should be combined with melody as soon 



9 8 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



as practicable. The simplest form of melody is that 
in which the same note appears in each half of the 
divided pulse, as : 

d .d II I PI .PI 




In blackboard exercises it will be found advantageous 
to use colored crayons for writing the 
pulse-signs. One uniform color should 
be used for all pulse-signs strong, weak and medium. 
This directs the eye to the signs which represent the 
pulsations or beats which are felt in singing, and 
materially assists in overcoming the common tendency 
to give a full beat to each tone. The half-pulse sign 
( . ) may be colored, but must be of a different color 
from the pulse-signs. The hints given on page 82 
will apply equally to the following exercises. See 
also "Time," pages 17 and 31. 
Ex. i. KEYS D TO A. 

II 



a. 


d :r.r 


m :r.r 


d :ti.t,|d : 


b. . 


d :r.r 


m :r 


d.d:t!.t,|d :- 


c. 


d :r 


m.m:r 


d.d:t, d :- 


d. 


d :r.r 


m.m:r 


d :t,.t,|d :- 


e. 


d.d:r 


m.m:r 


d.d:t, d :- 




d.d:r.r|m.m:r.r 


d :t|.t, d : 




d.d:r.r 


m.m:r.r 


d :t,.t, d :- 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 
Ex. 2. SAME KEYS AS ABOVE. 

a. |d :d.d:r.r|m :m :r.r |d :t| 



99 



b. Id :d.d:r |m :m.m:r Id :t|.ti:t| Id:: 

c. Id :d :r.r|m.m:m :r.r Id :t| :t|,t|ld: : 

d. Id :d :r.r|m.m:m :r.r Id :t|.ti:t| Id: : 

e. |d : :r.r|m : :r.r Id : :t, 



Ex. 3. SAME KEYS AS ABOVE. (With change of tones). 

a. | d :d . r I n : I m :m .r | d :- 



. Id :d .r |n :m.r|d :d.ti |d 

- Id.r :m |r : |r .d :t| |d 

. Id :r |m.r:d |m.r:d.t| |d 

. |d'.t,:d .r in : |r.d:t, 



Any of the above exercises may be converted into 
secondary form, by commencing on the weak pulse 
and deducting one pulse from the last note in order 
to equalise the form, thus : 

:d Id :r.r|m :r.r|d :t|.t, d 



SIX-PULSE MEASURE. 



Ordinary six-pulse measure may 
be taught by the same method as 
three-pulse measure. At this stage quick six-pulse 



TOO 



THE TEACHER S HANDBOOK. 



measure (see page 40) may be introduced with advan- 
tage. Its lively rhythm will tend to brighten the 
exercises and songs, and will add much to the pleasure 
of the music-lesson. The Time-names for thirds of a 
pulse will be rather confusing for the pupils of this 
grade, and should be deferred till later. The most 
suitable plan will be to teach the exercises as in 
ordinary six-pulse measure, and then gradually in- 
crease the speed and beat twice in measure Pupils 
will readily perceive that the beats occur on the strong 
and medium accents only. 



Ex. 4. SAME KEYS AS ABOVE. 

d :t :d |r :d :r In 



:r :m Id : : 



d :t, :d |r : : |r :d :r |n : : 



:d.d|r :d :r.r|m :m :r.r d 



|d.d:t| :d |r.r:d :r |m.m:r :n |d : 



ii 



:m :m.r |d : : 



DICTATION. 



d :d :t!.d|r :r :d.r|m 

In addition to the above, exercises 
in writing from dictation should fre- 
quently be given. These will assist in training the 
eye to read the notation of time. The primary 
exercises should consist of writing measures only, 
thus : Teacher will direct pupils to write two two- 
pulse measures, explaining the relative length of the 
bar and colon. (See page 36.) Three and four-pulse 
measure may then be dictated. The next process 



NOTES ON DIVISION L 101 

will consist of writing notes of various lengths, thus : 
Teacher directs pupils to write two four-pulse meas- 
ures, then dictates slowly :- First pulse doh ; second 
pulse, ray ; third, me ; fourth, ray, with Taa-tai, etc. 
When all have finished, the slates may be examined, 
and the more common mistakes pointed out and 
corrected by judicious questioning. When pupils 
succeed in writing an exercise fairly well, they should 
be rewarded by being allowed to sing from their own 
written copy. This is usually considered a reward 
worthy of their best efforts. 

EAR EXERCISES. 

In conducting ear exercises, the teacher should 
carefully avoid taking answers from the few sharp 
pupils only, but should endeavour to make the exer- 
cises so simple and interesting that 
all will be able to take part. 



IMITATION EXERCISES. 



simplest exercises for training young pupils to listen 
well are those in which the teacher sol-fas a short 
phrase to which the pupils listen, and afterwards 
imitate. These should consist only of the tones 
which have been studied. 

EXAMPLES : 

FIRST STEP. 

|dmds||smsd||msdm 



s m d S, || S, d S, m || s d 1 s d 
m d s m II s d 1 m s II d 1 s m d 1 



|dsmd||mdsd||sdsm|| 



102 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

SECOND STEP. 

dmdr|lrsrm||drt|d 



r s r t| II r s t| d |j d ti r d 

n r s d || d Si ti r || r s n r 

s t s d 1 || d 1 t d 1 s || d 1 s m r 

d 1 t s d 1 M m d 1 s t II d 1 m r d 



Variety of rhythm may be introduced with advan- 
tage as it helps to make the exercises more interesting 
and lively. 



EXAMPLES : 

|d :d.d|m : || |d :m.d|s : 

is :d |t.d':s jl In :s |r.m:d 
|m.r:d |r : II |s.m:d |s : 
:BI |d :n.r|d II :s, |r :d.r|m 

In all the above the key must be adapted to the 
compass of the voices. The next method is that in 
which the attention is concentrated on one particular 
tone surrounded by several others. 

EXAMPLE OF METHOD. 

Teacher. Can you tell me what kind of tone doh. is ? 
' Class. Strong and firm. 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 103 

Teacher. I am going to sing several tones, and I want you to 
listen very carefully, and tell me which one sounds like doh. 
(Writes on blackboard 1,2, 3, 4, gives the key- 
tone, then sings s m s d to laa while pointing 
to the numerals.) Raise hands all who can tell 



FINDING DOH. 



me on which number I sang doh. Tommy will come up and point 
it out. (Pupil points number two.) 

Teacher. I will sing it again, and you will listen and find out 
whether that one is firm enough for doh. (Repeats with soft 
emphasis on me and strong on doh.) Now, what do you think 
of number two ? 

Class. It was not firm enough for doh. 

Teacher. Quite right ; but where was doh ? Those who think it 
was on number one, raise hands, on three, on four. I see you 
all now think it was on four, that is correct. You will now try and 
find doh again, and will write what you think is the correct number 
on your slates. (Sings m d s m to laa, while pupils listen and 
write.) Those who have number one will raise hands; number 
two ; three ; four. Number two is correct. 

The act of writing the answers compels each pupil 
to think for himself, and is a sure means of ascertain- 
ing whether they are equal to the 
exercises. With very young pupils 



it is advisable to use some well-known objects in 



place of the numerals. 



brought to the front, or an equal number of birds may 



be drawn on the blackboard, to which the teacher 



may point while singing the exercises. 



The remaining tones of the step will 




be treated by the same method as described for doh. 
After the above have been given it will be an easy 
matter to concentrate the attention on one particular 
number, and find out to which tone it is sung. 
Example. Write on board I, 2, 3, *4. Direct pupils 



104 

to think of four only, and tell to which tone it is sung. 
Sing d S d Pi, intensifying the mental effect of the 
fourth tone, and question as above. A number of 
exercises may be given consecutively and the answers 
written, and examined at the close. Young pupils will 
be interested by having a bird drawn in place of num- 
ber four, and will readily tell which tone the bird sings. 
In all cases corrections should be made by question- 
ing on the mental effect, but the answer should never 
be told by the teacher until the pupils have found it 
for themselves. 

Which is d ? 
smsd||mdsm||smds|dsmm|| 



Which is s ? 
dmds||dsdn||dmsd||smmd 

Which is Pi ? 
dsdm||dmds||dsmd||pissd|| 

Which is S| ? 
d m d Si II d Si d PI II m d Si d || s, d m d II 

Which is d 1 ? 
d m s d 1 s PI d 1 d d 1 s m d s d 1 PI s 



It is unnecessary to multiply examples here, as 
any teacher should be able to prepare them without 
assistance. 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 105 

Which tone is sung on number four ? 
FIRST STEP. 

Ids PI d || d s d PI II PI s sdlldsmd 1 



m s s d || d m d s || m s d S, || S, d m d |3 

s d PI Si || s d s m || m s d 1 m |j d s s d || 

SECOND STEP. 

d s m r || m r s d || s t s d 1 II d 1 t d 1 s 



msrm||dt|ds||srt|d||mdrt 
r s t, d || m s; r d || PI r d t, || d s, t, r || 
s t d 1 r 1 II d 1 t r 1 s II s d 1 r 1 t II s r 1 s m 



The manual-signs'may be used to advantage in the 
above. EXAMPLE. Teacher intimates that those who 
know which tone is sung on a particular number (any 
number may be taken equally with four) will make 

I MANUAL-SIGNS IN I * ts manual-sign and cover it until the 
EAR EXERCISES. | command " Hands out," is given. All 
will then raise hands instantly without looking at the 
others. The teacher will then perceive at a glance 
how many have the correct answer. Much depends 
on the simultaneous indication of the manual-signs, 
as if done slowly copying will certainly be the result. 
See Ear Cultivation, page 52. 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



TEACHING SCHOOL SONGS. 

Rote songs have been described in a former chapter 
(page 60). The songs to be taught " by note " at this 
stage should consist only of the tones and rhythms 
already studied. The same methods will be employed 
for teaching the tune as for sight-singing, described 
above. When the tune has been thoroughly learnt 
and vocalised, the words should be studied separately, 
and the thoughts which they contain should form the 
subject of a "talk" between teacher and pupils. It 
may, perhaps, be advisable to practice the words and 
music until they are sung mechanically correct before 
taking up the subject of expression. 



EXAMPLE : 



Key G. 

d :- :d 

1. When the 

2. When the 

r : :r 



anfc 



In 
And 



the 
the 



m : :m 



That's 
Let 



the 
a 



s : :m 

Songs of 
For the 



d :- 

ear 

even 



east 
light 

s : 

time 
grate 



wel 
night 





A. 


T. C. 


V* 


r tPi 


| 


d :- 

break - 
steal - 


:S| 

- ing 
- ing 


morn 
shades 


- :r 


r :d 


:r 


m : 


: 


with 
fades 


gold - 
from 


- en 
the 


ray, 
west, 




to 
- ful 


r :d 


:r 

a 
be 


m : 

wak - 

peal - 


:d 

- ing 
- ing 


be 

hymn 


- :m 


t, :d 


:r 


d :- 


: 


come 
of 


to 
qui - 


the 
- et 


day. 
rest. 





otf biVisiON L iof 

We will suppose that the tune and words of the 
above song have been sung fairly well, without any 
special reference having been made to expression. 
The pupils will now be prepared for a " talk " on the 
subject in which they will be led to discover whatever 
beauties the song may contain. 

EXAMPLE. 

Teacher. You have sung this song very nicely, but I wonder 
whether you have been thinking of its meaning. Can you tell me 
what you have been singing about ? 

Class. About " Morning and Evening." 

Teacher. Quite right. In what part of the song do we sing of 
morning ? 

Class. In the first verse. 

Teacher. And in what part, of evening ? 

Class. In the second verse. 

Teacher. Let us take the first two lines and think of them only 
for a little. Can you tell me why morn is spoken of as breaking 
in the east ? 

Class. It means that the sun rises in the east. 

Teacher. With what kind of ray does the morning break ? 

Class. With golden ray. 

Teacher. If any of you are in the habit of rising in the early 
morning, you will be able to tell me what a sunrise looks like. 

Class. It is bright. It is beautiful. It is very pretty. 

Teacher. You are all correct. It is one of the grandest sights 
that anyone can witness. How do you think we should sing of 
this grand picture ? (No answer.) Do you think we should sing 
as if we felt sorry that the sun had risen so grand and bright ? 

Class. (Smiling). No ; we should be happy and bright. 

Teacher. Then we must sing that brightly and lively, and when 
you do so I want you to think of the bright sunrise and imagine 
that you see it with your eyes. I will watch your faces, and if 
you really think of what you are singing, I am sure that they will 
look bright and happy too. (Class sings first two lines with expres- 
sive brightness.) 



io8 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

Teacher. That certainly did sound much better, and you looked 
much happier also. We will now study the remainder of the verse. 
At what time are we to be awaking songs of welcome ? 

Class. In the early morning. 

Teacher. Yes, that's the time. And what sort of songs are songs 
of welcome ? Do you think we should welcome the day with a 
careless, lazy kind of song, or a bright, hearty song ? 

Class. With a bright, hearty song. 

Teacher. You will now sing the whole verse, and you must sing 
as if you were really giving a hearty welcome to something which 
you are pleased to have. 

This will be followed by a similar " talk " on the 
second verse, in which the characteristics of evening, 
the twilight fading in the west, and the hymn of 
gratitude and prayer for quiet repose are contrasted 
with the brightness and light-heartedness of the 
morning. 

The above method may be considered tedious and 
unnecessary. Some teachers may consider it quite 
sufficient to tell the pupils to sing the first verse 



MECHANICAL 
EXPRESSION. 



lively, or loudly, and the second 
softly. This would certainly result 
in the song being sung with a certain degree of 
expression, but it could only be of a mechanical, 
unintelligent description, productive of no educa- 
tional advantage. Its importance cannot be too 
strongly urged upon the teacher. If pupils are 
trained to think intelligently of what they sing at 
this early stage, the practice of " singing with the 
heart and not with the lips only" will become a 
confirmed habit, and in a short time they will learn 
to investigate for themselves and discover new 
beauties in all they undertake. This will surely 



NOTES ON DIVISION I. 109 

recompense the thoughtful teacher for the care 
bestowed upon the subject during the few minutes 
occupied in teaching the lesson. Dr. Arnold once 

I said to his pupils, " You come here, 
LEARNING How." 11/7 / 
not to read, but to learn hoiv to read. 



This principle of " learning hoiv " should unfailingly 
be applied in teaching how to sing with the under- 
standing. 

VOICE-TRAINING. 

During this stage no elaborate exercises for voice- 
training are necessary ; in fact, one simple chordal 
exercise is sufficient for all practical purposes. All 
exercises should be sung with a soft, pure quality of 
tone. Attention should be gfven principally to the 
formation of correct methods in singing, and the 
eradication of whatever faulty habits may have already 
been formed. The tone should be delivered with 
precision and thrown well forward in the mouth. 
For this purpose, syllables composed of the consonant 
k and the various vowels will be found most useful 
The mouth should be opened widely. The vowel ah 
is the most useful for this purpose. Ai and ee should 
at first be avoided on account of the tendency to sing 
them with the mouth almost closed. 

EXAMPLE : 

Id :m Is :m Id : I : 



K k k k k O< 

Attack^ K k k k k ' 
CK ' ' Kaa kaa kaa kaa kaa. 



Scah 
Oh.. 



Resonance. 

Oo oh ah oh oo 



110 THE TEACHERS HANDBOOK. 

The preceding may be commenced in the key of C 
and gradually raised to A, provided proper care is 
taken to prevent forcing of voice. If the exercise is 
softly sung no danger need be feared, as the registers 
will take care of themselves naturally. In the last 
form of the exercise the forward delivery of tone 
which naturally accompanies the vowel oo must be 
retained in singing oh and ah, the shape of the mouth 
being gradually altered for each vowel. 



CHAPTER XII. 

NOTES ON DIVISION H. 

LESSON ON THIRD STEP. 

PREPARE blackboard by writing diagram of second 
step modulator, leaving space between m and s, m i 
and s and t. Drill class in singing from modu- r , 
lator. Give ear exercises in which pupils antici- d , 
pate a new tone. Which tone is sung on No. t 
4. Teacher singing to laa || d m d s|| d m d r || 
d S d n || d Pi d f *|| The three first exercises 8 
will prepare for the fourth, in which the new m 
tone will be discovered at once. r 

Teacher. Which tone did you hear on No. 4 ? 

Class. A new tone. 

Teacher. I will sing the same phrase again, and you will sing 
it after me. (Repeats phrase, class imitate.) At what place in 
the scale shall we place the new tone ? 

Class. Between m and s. 

Teacher Quite correct. The name of the new tone is fah. 
(Writes it in position.) Now sing from my pointing. (Points 



NOTES ON DIVISION II. Ill 

dsdmdddfffm.) You seem to have a little difficulty in singing 
fah, but you will find it much easier when you have studied its 
mental effect. Listen while I sing, and tell me what you think of 
the character of fah. (Sings several phrases in which fah is made 
prominent.) 

Class. It has a dull sound ; it is solemn ; it is gloomy. (Such 
answers may not be given at first, but a repetition of the exercises 
will elicit them readily. The writer has received as many as sixteen 
different answers to this question, all tending to show that pupils 
had grasped the idea of the mental effect of the new tone.) 

Teacher. There seems to be a difference of opinion regarding 
the character of fah. Let me try to help you. Just suppose that 
you are at play in the yard, when a boy comes up to one of you 
and tells you that there is a policeman in the schoolroom wishing 
to speak to you. How do you think you would feel about it ? 

Class. We would feel rather serious. 

Teacher. But suppose this same boy should run up to you and 
tell you that "Teacher says you are to have a half-holiday," how 
would you feel about it ? 

Class. We would feel happy. 

Teacher. Now that you see the difference between these two 
situations, perhaps you will be able to tell me which one fah most 
resembles. 

Class. The serious one. 

Teacher. Yes, fah. is really a very serious, gloomy tone. Now 
practise singing from the modulator, and think of the effect of fah 
each time you sing it. 

As soon as possible after fah has been taught, lah 
should be introduced, as fah is more easily sung 
when in connection with lah and doh. The same 
method as above will be used, being careful to approach 
lah from fah, thus : || d f f S II d f f 1 || The men- 
tal effect of lah is sad and plaintive. 

Great care must be taken to impress the difference 
in the mental effect of the tones fah and lah, as they 
resemble each other to a certain extent. 






ii2 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

Pupils should not be kept too long on this lesson, 
as the mental effect of the new tones is so depressing 
that they will quickly become dull and even unable 
to respond readily to your questioning. The intro- 
duction of some bright song, previously learnt, will 
serve to counteract the depression, 

THIRD STEP 
MODULATOR DRILL. MODULATOR. 

f 

The introduction of fah and lah com- , 

pletes the scale and permits of an almost 
endless variety of melodic combinations. r' 

As in the previous steps, the new tones 
should receive special attention until 
their mental effect has been firmly estab- TE 

lished. Owing to the marked leading 

I AH 
tendency of fah towards me there is 

always a danger of flattening in pitch QQU 

when practising the new tones. This 

must be guarded against from the outset, FAH 

as the habit once formed is exceedingly |y| 

difficult to rectify. The effect of fah 

and lah can be more clearly impressed RAY 

when contrasted with the brighter tones 

of the scale, as : d m d *s || d m d *f || 

s d 1 1 *d' ||s d 1 1 *1| d 1 1 d 1 *s||d' t d 1 *1|| 

In Division II. simple exercises only are 1| 

given, the more difficult intervals being 

reserved for Division III. The method 

described on page 90 should be employed f| 

in modulator drill at this stage. mi 



NOTES ON DIVISION II. 113 

SIGHT-SINGING. 

During this stage the teacher may unconsciously 
introduce unnecessarily difficult intervals, unless the 
lessons have been previously prepared. The simplest 
form of approach to the tones f or 1 is from the tones 
of the FAH chord, thus : d msdfld'l f m r r d. 
The following rule will serve as a guide in composing 
exercises for sight-singing. Approach f and 1 by 
chordal leap, or by step, from the tones immediately 
above or below, all other tones may be approached 
by leap. 
EXERCISES. KEYS C TO E(). COMPASS t, TO d 1 . 

dPidsmfld'lfmfrd 
dsmfrmfslsd'ltd 1 
mdfrsmffslslsd 
s drtidmfrslfltd 1 
dmfssllsd'lfsfm 
d 1 t 1 s d 1 t d 1 1 1 f r 1 1 s 

Exercises in which the tones move by step followed 
by a sudden leap occasion a slight difficulty. They 
are useful in checking the tendency to anticipate, and 
in cultivating close attention. 
EXERCISE i. KEY C. 

drmfsd'tlsmrdt, d 

EXERCISE 2. KEY F. 

Pidrsfmrtidrtidrd 

EXERCISE 3. KEY G. 

d t ( 1| t, d r m s f m r d 1| d 



H4 

EXERCISE 4. KEY G. 

m d f m r d 1, Si 1, ti r d ti d 

EXERCISE 5. KEY A. 

d ti d S| f, m, f, s, t, r ti d s, m, 

EXERCISE 6. KEY Bt>. 

d Si MI dj f| 8| 1| t| d f r d S| d 

The methods of employing rhythmic exercises, 
and colors, described in the previous chapter, apply 
equally to this step. 

TIME. 

LESSON ON HALF-PULSE CONTINUATIONS. 
Prepare blackboard with two four-pulse measures. 
d :r m :m.r|d :d.t,!d : 



REVIEW. 



Teacher. You have already learned how to 
sing whole-pulse tones, half-pulse tones, and 
prolonged tones, and to-day we will study some 
new combinations in rhythm. In this exercise, can you tell me 
how many tones we have which are only one pulse long ? 
Class. Four. 

Teacher. How many are two pulses long ? 
Class. One. 

Teacher. And how many pulses are divided into halves ? 
Class. Two. 

Teacher. Now tell me the time-names for each pulse as I point 
to it. 

Class. Taa, Taa, Taa, Taa-tai, Taa. Taa-tai, 
Taa-aa. 

Teacher. You will now sing the time-names 



as I point. (Class sings as desired.) Now sing to laa while I beat 
time. (Class sings as desired.) You can sing that correctly, and 
will now be able to tell whether I sing it without any mistake. 
(Sings it correctly to laa while pupils listen.) Did I make any 
mistake ? 
Class. No. 



NOTES ON DIVISION II. 115 

Teacher. Listen once more. (Sings as before, prolonging third 
tone half-way through fourth pulse.) Did you notice any mistake ? 

Class. Yes. 

Teacher. In which pulse was the mistake made ? 

Class. In the fourth pulse. 

Teacher. Did I sing both of the tones in the fourth pulse ? 

Class. No ; you omitted the first one. 

Teacher. I did omit the first one ; but, can you tell me whether 
I sang anything in its place ? 

Class. You continued the third tone into the fourth pulse. 

Teacher. Quite right. The time-name for this rhythm is taa-aa- 
tai. Please sing it after me. (Gives pattern, taa-aa-tai, and class 
sing it repeatedly, in order to catch the effect of the new rhythm.) 
You can now sing that nicely and I think will be able to tell me 
how to write its notation. We will rub out the first note in the 
fourth pulse. What sign do we use to express a continued tone ? 

Class. A dash. 

Teacher. Yes ; we usually have a long dash for the continuation 
through a full pulse, but as this tone has only to be continued 
through half a pulse we will use a short dash. (Writes I (J ; ,d I- ) 
You will now see how we get the time-names for this rhythm. 
What is the time-name for the third pulse note ? 

Class. Taa. 

Teacher. For the continuation ? 

Class. Aa. 

Teacher. And for the last half of a pulse ? 

Class. Tai. 

(Writes from pupils' dictation | (J ;- .d 

Taa- aa-Tai 

Teacher. We will now practise singing this new rhythm in tune. 

i 1 Please sing it to the time-names ; now to the 

| SINGING IN TUNE. | syllables on one tone. (In the latter, pupils 
will probably fail. Some will sing ray at fourth 



beat instead of continuing me. This may be overcome by slightly 
accenting the continuation at fourth pulse, or by using colored 
crayons as follows : Teacher writes the m and the dash in blue, 
and the r in orange.) What is the color of m ? Of the dash ? 
Class. Blue, 



n6 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

Teacher. If both are of the same color, does it not indicate that 
they should have the same sound ? 

Class. Yes ; they should be the same. 

Teacher. Is r of the same color as the others ? 

Class. No ; it is orange. 

Teacher. Then if the color is changed we should certainly 
change the sound. Does the color change at the beginning of the 
pulse or at the middle ? 

Class. At the middle. 

Teacher. Then you must be careful not to sing ray at the begin- 
ning of the pulse, but to prolong me half-way through, and then 
sing ray. 

When the exercise has been correctly sung it should 
be followed by ear exercises in which the teacher 
sings phrases of several measures in length while the 
pupils listen for the new rhythm, and tell the number 
of times it occurs in each phrase. 

In practice it will be found neces- 



1 sary to employ various means of 



securing correctness in singing the new rhythm. The 
color method will be found the most useful for training 
the eye. This may be supplemented by the empha- 
sizing of the prolongation of the vowel sound, thus : 



m : .r Id : .mis : .f I 

Me e I Don oh |Soh oh I 



m : 



It should also be pointed out that the ear naturally 
expects the last half of the pulse to lead and connect 
with the pulse which follows. 
Ex. i. KEYS D TO A. 

d :d.r |n : .r Id :d .t, |d :- 



b. |d : .r |m : .r |d :d.t, |d :- 



NOTES ON DIVISION II. 1 17 

c. Id : .r m :m.r Id :d.t| |d : 

d. Id : .r |n : .r Id : .t, |d :- 

e. Id : .r |m :m.r Id : ,t t d : 

A fresh difficulty will be experienced when -aa Tat 
is immediately followed by Taa-Tai. 
Ex. 2. SAME KEYS AS ABOVE 

a. Id : .r |m : .f Is .f :m.r |d : 



b. Id : .r |m .f :s if :m .r d :- 

|d.r:m.f |s : .flm :m.r d : 

<*|d.r:m |f : .s If :m.r |d : 

e. I d .r :m |- : ,f I s .f :m ,r d :- II 



-Aa-Tai is exceptionally difficult when it occurs in 
three-pulse measure. The most common error is to 
substitute a full-pulse continuation followed by half- 
pulses. 

Ex. 3. KEYS C OR D. 

.|d :r :m If :-.s:l It : :t Id 1 : : 



: :r |m :-.f:s II : :t Id 1 : : II 
. Id :-.r:m f :- :- Is :-.! :t d' :- :- 



d : : |r :-.m : 
d :-.r:m |f :-.s: 



s :-.! :t Id 1 :- :- 
t. :-.t :t Id 1 :- :- 



i:8 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

The preceding may be converted into secondary 
measure by commencing on the weak accent, and 
deducting one pulse from the length of the last note. 

SILENT PULSES. (RESTS.) 

In teaching a first lesson on silent pulses, the same 
methods as described in the foregoing specimen 
lessons may be adopted, viz.: The new rhythm 
introduced in ear exercises by the teacher, detected 
and imitated by the pupils, and developed by appro- 
priate interrogation. Theoretically, it seems an ano- 
maly to use a time-name to express a silence, but, 
practically, it will be found exceedingly valuable. 
The sensation of pulses in music is so powerful that 
unless something is provided to be sung on the stroke 
of the silent pulse, untrained pupils will invariably 
sing the succeeding tone. The act of whispering the 
time-name involves a certain degree of restraint which 
compels the singer to observe the silence when 
singing in tune. The pupils should at first sing all 
the time-names, then the teacher may sing those for 
the silent pulses, and finally the pupils will sing all 
but the silent pulses, merely thinking the time-names 
as they occur in the exercise. 
Ex. 4. KEYS C TO A. 

a. |d :r |m : If :m.r d : 



II 

d.r:m I rf.mlr : Id : 



r.nif.nlr : |d : 



II 



NOTES ON DIVISION II. 

^ Id :r | :m If :m.r |d : 
e. Id :- .r |n :f.m|r : |d :- 

Ex. 5. KEYS C OR D. 

* Id : :r |m : : f Is :1 :t Id 1 :- 



119 



* Id :r : |m :f : Is :1 :t Id 1 :- 

c. Id : :r |m :f :s ll :t : Id 1 :- 

d. Id :r : I :m :f Is :1 :t Id 1 :- 

. Id :r :m | : f :s II : :t Id 1 : 



EAR EXERCISES. 

These will be conducted by exactly the same 
methods as prescribed for Division I. Care must 
be observed in impressing the mental effects of f, 1 
and m, as, owing to their seeming resemblance, one is 
frequently mistaken for the other. This difficulty 
may readily be overcome by frequent comparison of 
the tones, as : d S d *m || d S d *f || d S d *1 || 
d 1 s d'*l|| d 1 s d^mlld 1 s d 1 f || 

Exercises in finding fab. : 



I 


2 


3 


4 


5 




i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


d 


t, 


d 


f 


m 




s 


d 


f 


r 


d 


m 


d 


1 


f 


s 




s 


1 


S 


f 


m 


d 


f 


r 


S 


d 




d 


t, 


d 


m 


f 


s 


m 


1 


S 


f 




d 


f 


r 


m 


d 



120 



THE TEACHER S HANDBOOK. 



Exercises in finding lah 

12345 
s d 1 t d 1 1 

d f r 1 s 
m s 1 f s 
d f r f 1 



12345 
d s m 1 s 
d 1 1 s f m 
s d 1 t 1 s 
d 1 s ltd 1 





I 


2 


3 


4 


5 




S 


m 


f 


r 


d 




d 


s 


1 


t 


d 1 




d 1 


m 


1 


1 


t 




s 


1 


8 


m 


f 



Exercises on all tones of the scale. Which is last ? 

12345 
d s d m r 

d 1 t d 1 s 1 
m d f r s 
s 1 f s m 

The above will be followed by exercises in naming 
any one tone sung to ah or oh. The teacher will 
sol-fa the chord d' S Pi d, then sing to ah or oh any 
one tone. Pupils will then give the sol-fa name of 
the tone. 

PREPARED SONG. 

This will be taught in the manner described for 
Div. I. See pages 57 and 1 06. 



NOTES ON DIVISION III. 121 

CHAPTER XIII. 

NOTES ON DIVISION III. 

MODULATOR DRILL. 

IN this Division pupils are expected to sing any tones 
of the scale, irrespective of the interval by which they 
may be approached. The simpler intervals having 
been taught in the preceding division, the more diffi- 
cult intervals will now demand attention. The inter- 
vals which usually occasion the most trouble are 
sixths, as d 1, 1| f, t r, and fourths, as f d, m t,, m 1. 
When two such intervals are given in succession, as 
S| d f, r S d 1 , the difficulty is considerably increased. 
The following are a few of the more difficult intervals 
included in this step : m 1, 1 n, d f, d 1, 1 r 1 , 1| r, 
r 1 1, m t,, t, m, t| f, f t, r t, t r, 1 d, f 1,, 1, f. 

In every lesson one or more of the above should be 
specially taught, but should be intermingled with 
simpler intervals in order that the pupils may not be 
discouraged by too many difficulties. The method 
described on page 78 for teaching soh should be freely 
employed in teaching fah and lah. 

Examples of exercises for Modulator Drill and 
Sight-Singing : 

KEY C. 

dmsd'tllsflfmmllmrrlfrdtid 
s d 1 t 1 d 1 1 1 d 1 r 1 r 1 1 r 1 m' 1 1 s 1 f 1 f r 1 t d 1 
dsffmrfmdfslflttftd'fmfrd 
dfnlffBlfd'fmdfrfnrfdfrt, d 



122 THE TEACHERS HANDBOOK. 

KEY E. 

dslmfrsd'fmrltlsd'tlfrdtid 

KEY A. 

d S| m, si 1| f, S| d r f m d 1, t| BI d f| m, 1, s, d t| d 

KEY F. 

dt|dS|Ldfmlfsmfrt|dsmlfsrd 

SIGHT-SINGING FROM BOOKS. 

When music books are introduced into the school- 
room for the first time, teachers are frequently sur- 
prised at the difficulty which pupils experience in 
singing exercises less difficult than many which they 
have previously sung from the blackboard. The 
explanation is simple. In blackboard exercises the 
teacher usually points to each pulse as it is sung, 
consequently every eye is concentrated on a particular 
point, and " losing the place " is an impossibility ; 
but when books are used pupils have to find each 
pulse for themselves, hence the confusion which usu- 
ally results. At this stage special 



EYE TRAINING. , gymnastics in eye tra i n i ng s h ou ld 



be given, both from blackboard and books, and the 
practice of pointing, to the pulse signs should be 
discontinued. 

EXAMPLE OF METHOD. 

Write on the blackboard an exercise containing 
continued tones and divided pulses, as : 

d :m |s rm.dlr :d.t,|d :- I 

s : |m :d.r In :r.r |d : II 



Teacher. I will now tap the pulses of this tune, and you will 
watch each pulse as I tap. Should I stop before reaching the end 



NOTES ON DIVISION III. 123 

you will show me on which pulse I stop. (Taps audibly without 
pointing to the pulses, ending on the seventh pulse.) Tell me on 
which pulse I finished. 

Class.. On the second pulse of the second measure. 

Teacher. Will someone point to the last pulse that was tapped ? 
(Pupil points to d in the pulse previous to the correct one.) No 
doubt you think that is the correct pulse, but you have been 
watching notes, not pulses. Try once more and watch the pulses 
only, no matter how many notes they may contain. 

This will invariably lead to correct answers being 
given. The same method should be followed with 
simple exercises in printed books, or the teacher may 
sing the exercise to laa while pupils point to each pulse. 
When the teacher stops singing, each pupil should be 
able to point to the exact pulse on which the pause 
is made. Exercises containing full-pulse tones only 
should be used at first, and gradually increased in 
difficulty until the books can be used with the same 
freedom as the blackboard. 

TIME. 

The division of the pulse into quarters may be 
taught by the methods described on page 86 for half- 
pulses. No difficulty need be experienced when 
singing on one tone ; but when singing in tune is 
attempted, there will be a decided inclination to 
slacken the tempo whenever quarter-pulses make their 
appearance. This may be overcome by sol-faing on 
one tone previous to singing in tune, and also by 
directing pupils to aim at singing in strict time the 
first note of the pulse which follows the divided pulse. 
If this habit is once formed the divided pulses will 
soon be found to take care of themselves. 



124 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK, 

Exercises in quarter pulses : 
a. 

[d :r .r |m :r,r.r,r|d :ti .ti |d : 



Id :r,r.r,r|m :r .r Id :ti,t|.t,ti|d 



Id :r,r.r,r m :r |d,d.d,d:ti .t t |d 

d. 

Id :r |m,m.m,m:r .r Id :t,t|.t,,ti|d 



e 

:r ,r 1 m,m.n,m :r |d,d.d,d:t| t t, |d : 



Id :r ,r 1 m,m.n,m :r | 



With change of tone : 
d :r .r m :f Is :s,f.m,r|d 



Id :d,r.m,f|s : Is :s,f.m,rld 

Id :d,r.m,f|s :s,f.n,r|d :t t .ti |d 

Id :d,r.m,f|s : |s,f.m,r:d .ti |d 

Id :- |d,r.m,f :s,f.m,rd :t, |d 



EAR EXERCISES. 

The first class of ear exercises prescribed for Div. 
III. are similar to those prescribed for Div. II. 

The second class comprise the simplest form of 
exercises containing more than one tone. In prepar- 
ing for those exercises it must be made clear to the 



NOTES ON DIVISION III. 



12, 



pupils that only three tones in stepwise order will be 
given. They may also be required to name three 
such tones, beginning with any tone indicated by the 
teacher, thus : Name three tones ascending in step- 
wise order from d ; descending from s ; ascending 
from 1, etc. The teacher may now sing several such 
phrases to laa, pupils being required to tell only 
whether the phrase ascends or descends. This should 
be followed by similar phrases in which they are 
required simply to name the first tone. When they 
have learned to distinguish between ascending and 
descending phrases, and to concentrate their attention 
on the first tone, there should not be much difficulty 
experienced in naming any of the phrases required. 
Previous to singing each phrase, the teacher must 
sol-fa the DOH chord, in order to clearly define the 
key. When incorrect answers are given, the attention 
should be directed to the mental effect of the first 
tone, and pupils questioned regarding its resemblance 
to the corresponding tone of the correct answer. 
When this has been discovered by the majority of the 
pupils the exercise should be sol-faed by all It will 
be noticed that exercises which begin with d, m or s 
will be more easily named than those which begin 
with the other tones of the scale. 



d r m 


m r d 


d t, 1, 


s f m 


s 1 t 


d 1 t 1 


d 1 r 1 m 1 


m f s 


f m r 


r m f 


r d t, 


f s 1 


1 s f 


1 t d 1 


t 1 s 


t. d r 


S; 1 t 


li t, d 


r ! d't 


t| 1] Si 



126 



THE TEACHER S HANDBOOK. 



Exercises in which the tones move by step, but not 
continuously in one direction, may now be given. 



d t, d 


d r d 


d d r 


d d t, 


m r m 


8 f 8 


sis 


s s 1 


m r r 


m f m 


r m r 


r r d 


r d r 


t 1 t 


t t d 1 


f s f 


s f f 


1 t 1 


d 1 t d 1 


1 s 1 



Singing from dictation may now be proceeded with 
and will be found an excellent auxiliary to ear 
training and sight-singing. The teacher may indicate 

SINGING FROM I ky the manual signs which tones are 
DICTATION. | to be sung to laa, or may simply 
name them, thus : Teacher sings d S Pi d and tells 
class to sing Pi r d, or any of above phrases which 
may be desired. In all exercises the pupils who 
display least natural ability to tell tones by ear should 
receive special attention and should be encouraged 
to persevere until they compare favorably with the 
others. See pages 52 and 101. 

PREPARED SONGS. 

These will necessarily contain greater difficulties of 
tune and time, and be of a superior character gener- 
ally than those prescribed for Div. II, but should be 
taught by the same methods. See page 106. 

VOICE TRAINING. 

Tuning exercises in two parts should now be intro- 
duced. It is advisable to teach the lower part 
thoroughly before touching the upper part, as young 



NOTES ON DIVISION III. 127 

pupils are invariably inclined to sing the latter, 
to which the ear is unconsciously attracted more 
strongly than to the former. The pupils should be 
divided into two sections, according to the quality of 

I the voice. A trained ear will easily 
CLASS.FY.NC VO.CES. [ distinguish the soprano from the con _ 



tralto by the quality of the speaking voice, but the 
ordinary teacher should not attempt to classify voices 
without first testing each voice in singing from the 
modulator. This may be done by singing up and 
down in the key of C. If the best tones are found 
in the upper-thick register, the voice may be presumed 
to be contralto ; but if in the lower and upper-thin 
registers, soprano will be the most suitable part for 
that particular voice. See page 23. Each part 
should be practised separately, beginning with the 
softest possible tone and endeavoring 
to have all voices in a part blended 
as one. Pupils who will persist in singing loudly 
should be prohibited from singing for a time. The 
most suitable vowel for elementary tuning of voices 
is oo. When the voices in each part have been fairly 
well blended, the two parts may be combined, and the 
vowels ah, oh, at and ee introduced individually in the 
order given. 

Examples of Tuning Exercises : 




KEY G. 



m :f I m :r 



m : - !- 

d :- - 



128 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



KEY G. 

d :r 



|m :f 
Id :1, 




CHAPTER XIV. 

NOTES ON DIVISION IV. 

MODULATOR DRILL. 

THE first modulator drill for this Division is exactly 
the same as prescribed for Division III. 

In order to conduct two-part exercises successfully 
it is necessary that the teacher should have a know- 
ledge of the elementary principles of harmony, in order 
that ungrammatical harmonic progressions may be 
avoided, and those only introduced which are calculat- 
ed to produce a pleasing harmonic effect. The most 
pleasing Intervals are thirds, as : d m ||r f\\l\ d II 
fl||s 1 1|. When tJiirds only are used they become 
too sweet and insipid, and a new combination is 
necessary. This is supplied by sixths, which are 
simply inverted thirds, as : d 1 1| r 1 1| m d 1 1| 1| f || t| S ||. 
A strong binding effect is produced by the employ- 
ment of fifths, as : d S II r 1 II f d 1 II, or their inversions 
termed fourths, as : S| d || 1 r 1 1| d f \l These, how- 
ever, must be employed with extreme 
caution, and on no account should 




* Intervals are calculated from the lower to the higher tone, both 
being included. 



NOTES ON DIVISION IV. 



two fifths, as : 



t 1 



129 
be given in sue- 



Mr m II 
dr llmrlls, 1, N, 

cession. The effect of such "consecutive fifths" is 
harsh and unpleasant. As a rule, four or five thirds 
or sixths in succession will be sufficient, and a fourth 
or fifth should be added to give variety to the 
harmony. The following will serve to illustrate : 
KEY E!?. 



d PI s m 


r f m f 


s 1 f f 


m f s 1 ) 


d d t, d 


t, t, d 


t, d r t. 


d r m f J 


t t d 1 


d 1 t 1 s 


f 1 s 


1 t d 1 -1 


f f PI 


m f f m 


r f f PI 


r f n - 



Before attempting to conduct two part exercises 
the teacher should carefully prepare a definite plan 
by writing a number of exercises similar to the above 
until familiar with the more common harmonic pro- 
gressions. A few short and simple exercises only 
should be used in the class until pupils have developed 
a moderate degree of steadiness in maintaining their 
own against another part. 

TIME. 

In this Division no new divisions of rhythm are 
introduced, but those already taught should be thor- 
oughly reviewed until they can be easily sung at sight. 

SIGHT-SINGING. 

The exercises prescribed for this Division are 
intended to enable pupils to sing at sight any ordinary 



130 

hymn tune or song of moderate difficulty. When 
tune and time are combined for the first time, one is 
certain to receive more attention than the other. 
Before singing each exercise, the attention should be 
directed to the difference in length of the notes. 
Each exercise should be vocalised, after sol-faing not 
more than three times. 
EXERCISE i. KEY G. 

Id :n r :s If : |m :f Is :1 |f :r Is : |m : I 
If :r |s : Is :m |1 : |r :s |d :f In :r |d : II 

EXERCISE 2. KEY D. 

In :d |f :r Is : |n : II :r |m :f If : |m : J 
Is :d' |f : -II :d' Is : In :d |r :s It, :r |d : 

EXERCISE 3. KEY A. 

d :t, d :s,mi:-|fi :-r, :s, [1, :t, II, :-|s, :- 



Id :n,|f, :-|r :d |s, :-jl, :d |n :r If :t, |d :- 

EXERCISE 4. KEY E. 

Id :n |r :t,|d:f |n : II :r |s :d|t :r |s, : ) 

Id :-|r :-|t, :s, |d :m|f :s 1 :m|f :s |d :- 



EAR EXERCISES. 

Exercises containing stepwise progressions should 
still receive attention. Dictation exercises containing 
intervals, of greater difficulty will prepare for more 



NOTES ON DIVISION IV. 



advanced ear exercises. In conducting the following 
exercises the teacher will sing the tones of the Don 
chord, then name the tones to be sol-faed by the class : 



m r d s 


1 f s d 


sits 


d 1 t 1 m 


r m f 1 


f m r s 


d 1 t d 1 s 


m f r d 


s 1 f s 


d 1 ,s 1 f 


s PI s r 


s 1 f d 


d 1 s t 1 


1 d 1 f m 


s PI d S| 


d s, t, d 



In the following the teacher will sing on one tone 
to laa while beating time, while the pupils listen, then 
sing the time-names on one tone : 

:d.d |d :d 



:- .d d : 
: |d.d:d 
:- .d |d :d.d 



,d.d,d-d |d.d:d 



d.d :d |d.d :d 
d :- .d d .d :d 
d.d:d |d :d .d 
d :d,d.d,did : _ 

d :d,d.d,dld :d .d 



PREPARED SONG. 

The study of two-part songs is usually a more 
difficult matter than is generally supposed. The 
upper part is usually more " catching " than the lower, 
and even when the parts have been thoroughly mas- 
tered when sung separately, it frequently happens 
that the alto voices are unconsciously singing with 
the soprano. This may be overcome by frequent 



I 3 2 



THE TEACHER S HANDBOOK. 



practice of tuning exercises and modulator drill in 
two parts. As a rule it is advisable to teach the 
lower part before the upper, until sufficient skill has 
been developed to permit of both parts being sung 
simultaneously. 

VOICE TRAINING. 

If a reasonable amount of attention has been paid 
to voice training, pupils should enter this Division 
with a fair command of voice, an increased compass, 
and a tone, which if not large in volume, should at 
least be pure and soft in its quality. A strict outlook 
should be kept for voices which are apt to be strained 
particularly among boys, who usually incline to force 
the lower-thin register upwards in 
preference to using the upper-thin. 



TRAIN DOWNWARDS, 



The upper registers can best be cultivated by singing 
downwards. Exercises for this purpose should begin 
above D 1 which will compel the use of the upper thin 
The sweetness of this register should be noticed, and 
pupils directed to carry it down as far as possible 
without changing. 

The vowel oo is the most congenial to this register 
and should precede all others. 

VOICE EXERCISES FOR UPPER REGISTERS. 

Ex. i. KEYS A, A|?, G, F. $ 

ls:f lm:r|s:f |n:r|s:f |m:r|m:f m :-| 



Ex. 2. KEYS F, E, E'?, D. & 

d':t 1 :s d':t 1 :s d':t 



Ex. 3. KEYS C, B, Bfr, A. $ 

|n':f In^r'ln'-.f rn'ir 1 |n':f 



:s |1 :t d'r-jl 
1 d':t d 1 : 



NOTES ON DIVISION IV. 

FOR WHOLE COMPASS OF VOICE. 
Ex. 4. KEYS C, D, E. $ 

m :d |s :mf :1 |d':l Is :t |r' :t Id 1 : -: 



Ex. 5. KEYS C, D. ^ & 

Id .n :r .f |m. s :f .1 Is .t :1 ,d'|t ,r' :d ) 

! I f 

im'.d 1 :'r.t |d'.l :t .s II .f :s .m |f .r :d II 

The above should first be sung to koo with neatly 
detached tones (staccato], then smoothly (legato] to oo t 
aa, ai, ee and o/t, breath being taken at the points 
marked *. 
I GYMNASTICS IN I Breathing exercises should be given 



| BREATHING. | frequently in connection with the 
above. It is inadvisable to multiply exercises. A 
few simple gymnastics conducted by a careful, obser- 
vant teacher, should be sufficient for all practical 
purposes. 

EXERCISE 1st Pupils stand erect, take breath by 
expanding the lower part of the chest while the teacher 
counts four slowly ; retain the breath by keeping the 
chest expanded for a similar length of time, then let 
the breath go suddenly. Repeat three or four times. 

EXERCISE 2nd. Inhale by expanding the chest 
suddenly ; retain the breath for four seconds as above, 
then sing the vowel oo while the teacher counts four. 
The attention must be concentrated on securing a 
smooth, steady tone. The period during which the 
breath is inhaled, or the tone sustained, may gradually 
be increased to eight seconds ; but it is not advisable 
to retain the breath beyond four seconds. 



134 THE TEACHERS HANDBOOK. 



PART SECOND. 

CHAPTER XV. 

SYLLABUS FOR SENIOB DIVISIONS. 

IN Part First the three primary steps of the Tonic 
Sol-fa method only are treated. The subject-matter 
of the remaining steps is as follows : 

FOURTH STEP. 

TUNE. The standard scale of pitch. Transition to the 
first sharp and first flat keys. Simple chromatic 
tones. Musical expression. 

TIME. Quarter-pulse silences. Pulses divided into thirds. 
Beating of time. 

FIFTH STEP. 

TUNE. The minor mode. Transitional modulation. 
TIME. Pulses divided into sixths, eighths and ninths. 

SIXTH STEP. 

TUNE. Transitions of two or more removes. Transitional 
modulation. Exceptional chromatic progressions. 
TIME. Rare divisions of rhythm. 

In pursuance of the plan adopted on page 63, the 
following syllabus is recommended for use in the 
senior divisions : 



SYLLABUS FOR SENIOR DIVISIONS. 135 



DIVISION V. 

MODULATOR. (a) To sol-fa from Examiner's pointing on the 
fourth-step modulator, exercises containing transition of one remove 
in the perfect method, (b) To sing as above, exercises containing 
the tones fe and ta in stepwise progression used thus: a fe s, d 1 ta 1. 

SIGHT-SINGING, To sol-fa at sight a written or printed exercise 
including all tones of the Major scale, with fe and ta as above, but 
not necessarily containing any divisions of the pulse less than half- 
pulses. 

TIME. To sing on one tone to time-names and laa, exercises 
containing combinations of quarters and half- pulse tones. 

EAR EXERCISES. To imitate and afterwards name the tones of 
a simple diatonic phrase of five tones the Examiner may twice sing 
to laa, the tones of the DOH chord being first given in each case. 

PREPARED SONG. To sing in two'parts, with due expression and 
fair quality of tone, a school song set to words. 



DIVISION VI. 

MODULATOR. (a) To sol-fa from Examiner's pointing, exercises 
containing transition of one remove and modulation to the relative 
minor, including the tone so used thus, 1 se 1. (b) To vocalize, from 
the Examiner's pointing, simple exercises including all tones of the 
major diatonic scale. 

SIGHT-SINGING. To sol-fa at sight a written or printed test 
including any tones of the major scale and easy transitions of one 
remove, indicated by bridge-notes. 

TIME. (a) To sing on one tone to laa or time-names, exercises 
including various combinations of thirds, (b) To sing as above, 
exercises in quick six-pulse measure. 

EAR EXERCISES. To imitate and afterwards name the tones of 
a simple phrase of five tones, including fe or ta. 

PREPARED SONG. Same as for Division V. 



136 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK 

DIVISION VII. 

MODULATOR. (a) To sol-fa from Examiner's pointing exercises 
containing transitions of two removes, (b) To vocalize as above, 
exercises containing easy transitions of one remove in the perfect 
and imperfect methods. 

SIGHT-SINGING. (a) To sol-fa at sight a written or printed test 
of moderate difficulty, including transitions of one remove indicated 
by bridge-notes, (b) To sol-fa as above a test including modula- 
tion to the relative minor with the tone se used thus, 1 se 1. 

TIME. To sing on one tone to laa or time- names, exercises con- 
taining any divisions of rhythm previously specified with the 
addition of quarter-pulse silences. 

EAR EXERCISES. To -write in correct time and tune a phrase of 
four measures, including whole pulse tones and continuations, but 
no divided pulses, the Examiner singing the DOH chord and indi- 
cating the rate of movement by beating one complete measure 
prior to singing the test. 

PREPARED SONG. To include transition of one remove, and 
divided pulses, sung to words with a fair command of voice, expres- 
sion and clear articulation. 

DIVISION VIII. 

MODULATOR. (a) To sol-fa from Examiner's pointing exercises 
containing transitions of two and three removes, and phrases in 
the minor mode, including the tones ba and se. (b) To sol-fa as 
above, exercises containing any chromatic tones in stepwise pro- 
gression, thus : m re m, s la s, r ma r. 

SIGHT-SINGING. (a) To sol-fa at sight an easy test including 
transition of one remove indicated by bridge-notes, and modula- 
tions to the relative minor, including the tones ba and se in stepwise 
progression, (b) To vocalise at sight an easy test including tran- 
sition of one remove. 

TIME. To sing on one tone to laa or time-names exercises of 
moderate difficulty, including any divisions of rhythm previously 
specified, with the addition of simple syncopations. 



TRANSITION. 137 

EAR EXERCISES. To write in correct time and tune a phrase of 
four measures containing half-pulses and the tones fe and ta, the 
examiner first indicating the rate of movement and giving the tones 
of the DOH chord. 

In order that each topic may be more clearly 
understood, a separate chapter is devoted to the 
discussion of each individually. The methods of 
teaching any one topic are identical in all classes. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

TRANSITION. 

IN order to clearly understand transition, C 1 d 1 

it is necessary that the standard scale of g ^ 

pitch should first be studied. The Tonic [7 $ 

Sol-fa notation makes no attempt at express- A 1 

ing absolute pitch other than intimating b # 

the key in which a piece of music is written. G S 
This is done by means of the first seven 

r f 

letters of the alphabet. The scale of C has 

been adopted by musicians as the standard E ro 

by which the pitch of all other scales is 

governed. By referring to the annexed ^ r 

diagram it will be noticed that the intervals 

of this scale correspond exactly with those ^ " 

of the third step modulator. Musicians have not yet 




138 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

agreed upon any definite standard, but the majority 
favour 256 vibrations as the standard for Middle C. 
In teaching, it is advisable to use 
an ordinary modulator (third step) 
suspended by a cord of sufficient length to permit 
of its being raised or lowered to any desired position. 
The seven letters being written on the blackboard on 
a line with the corresponding notes of the modulator 
will illustrate the scale of absolute pitch, while the 
movable modulator will illustrate the scale of relative 
pitch, with its movable doh. The lesson may be 
illustrated by referring to the standard of weights 
and measures, by which all others are measured. In 
pitching the key the modulator should be moved 
until Tl is opposite the letter which represents the 
required key. Then take the sound of C 1 from the 
tuning-fork or other instrument, and sing downwards 
to the letter required, and sing doh. on exactly the 
same pitch. The keys most commonly used may be 
readily pitched by singing the note which is on the 
same pitch as C, and then downwards to d, thus : 
To pitch G : move the modulator until d is opposite 
G. Fah will now be opposite C ; sound C, call 
it fah, and sing f Pi r d. The d will then indicate 
the key of G. 

We have hitherto changed key frequently in sing- 
ing different exercises, but have not as yet changed 
key within any one exercise or tune. When this takes 
place it is called Transition. It serves to add increased 
interest to a musical composition by introducing 



TRANSITION 



139 



FOURTH STEP 

MODULATOR. 



d 1 f 

t m' 



m 



ba, t| 

f, ta, 

1, 



Si 

ba, 
f, 

m. 



re 1 se 
S 



r 

se ' d6 ' ba 

s DOH 1 f 



TE rn 

le 



ba 
f ta 

m LAH 

la 



r SOH 

bah fe 

d FAH 

t, ME 

ma re 



1, RAY s, 

de , 

se, ba, 

s, DOH f, 



se, 



m 



fe, \,2 



variety and freshness. Tran- 
sition in some form is used 
in about ninety per cent, of 
the tunes in common use. 
The commonest of all tran- 
sitions is that in which soh 
of the old key becomes 
doh of the new key. Soh 
being technically termed 
the Dominant of the scale, 
a transition, in which soh 
becomes the key-tone, is 
called a " Dominant Tran- 
sition." When in transition 
fah of the old key becomes 
doh. of the new key, this 
is called a " Sub-dominant 
Transition," as fah. is known 
as the Sub-dominant of the 
scale. In comparing the 
tones of the old and new 
keys in either of the above 
transitions, it will be ob- 
served that only one note 
is altered, viz., in one fah 
is sharpened to make te, 
while in the other te is 
flattened to make fah. No 
transition can be made 
without the displacement 



140 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

of at least one tone. When only one tone is thus 
displaced, we have the form of transition which is 
most easily sung, the difficulty increasing in proportion 
to the number of tones which are of necessity dis- 
placed. Before introducing the subject of transition, 
it is necessary that the construction of the scale be 
clearly understood in order that a proper conception 
may be formed of the real nature of a " change of key." 

FIRST LESSON ON TRANSITION. 
Write on blackboard an ordinary third step 
"" modulator with short horizontal lines opposite 
each note. Direct attention to the lines as 
" indicating the intervals between the tones of the 
s scale. Introduce the subject by ear exercises 
f _ in which the expectant, leading effect of te is 
m contrasted with the firm, restful effect of dob.. 

Teacher. (Gives key-tone, then sings to laa d r d t,.) Can 
you tell me the names of those four tones ? 
d Class. d r d t,. 

t l Teacher. Quite right. Can you describe the effect just 
produced by ending on te ? Listen once more and try. 
(Repeats the phrase.) 

Class. It is restless. It is unfinished. It expects dob to finish it. 
Teacher. Now let us compare it with an ending on doh. (Sings 
d r d t t d, pausing on t, to intensify its expectant effect.) How 
did that sound ? 

Class. It seemed more finished. It was restful. 
Teacher. Listen again and tell me what tones you hear. (Sings 
sis fe s, which is simply the previous phrase repeated a fifth 
higher.) 

Class. It is d 1 r' d 1 t d 1 . s 1 s f s. 

Teacher. A. number seem to think it was the same phrase 
repeated an octave higher, I will sing it as such. (Sings d 1 r 1 d 1 1 d 1 ). 
Is that the same as before ? 
Class. No ; it is too high. 



TRANSITION. 14! 

Teacher. If the phrase is not an octave higher than the first, we 
must try to find out what it is. (Repeats s 1 s f e s.) 
Class. It is like the first phrase. It is s 1 s f s. 
Teacher. You do not seem to be able to agree about it yet, still 
you are both partly correct. Let us take one tone at a time and 
perhaps we will succeed better. (Sings one tone at a time, 
eliciting correct answers until fe is reached.) Some say the fourth 
tone is fall. I will sing fah this time. (Sings s 1 s f s.) Is that 
the same as before ? 

Class. No ; it is too gloomy. It is too low. 
Teacher. What is the interval between soh and fall ? 
Class. A full tone. 

Teacher. And what between d and t, ? 
Class. A semitone. 

Teacher. VJe find that this fourth tone is below soh, though not 
quite so low as fah, and you have told me it sounds like te. Let 
us change soh into doh and sing. (Writes ^ opposite to the right 
and points while class sing d r d.) You can readily recognise that 
as being the same as I sang before, but where shall we place tj ? 
Class. A semitone below s. 

Teacher. Quite correct. Now sing both phrases from my 
pointing. (Points d r d t, d sd r d t ( d while pupils sing.) You 
will now observe that both phrases are alike, but the latter is in a 

, ( ^ new key. We will now build the remainder of the new 

scale. (This is done from pupils' dictation.) You will 

notice that all the tones are not on the same lines. How 
1 r many tones are altered ? 

Class. Fah is the only one. 

Teacher. Yes. We find in this change of key only 

f l one tone which requires to be displaced, all the others 

m i remaining on precisely the same pitch as the tones of the 

old key. Te being the new tone introduced by the tran- 
r 8 i sition is termed the distinguishing tone. In making the 
^ ^ transition we crossed over on soh, but we might have 

done so on any other tone but fah. The tone on which 
t, nil 

t j we cross from any one key to another 

1, r, BRIDGE-TONES. I 1S termed the bridge-tone. We will 

' ' now practise changing key on various 

s, d, 



142 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

bridge-tones, and I would ask you to make sure that you sing the 

bridge-tone and the tone opposite, without altering the sound. 

(Practise as indicated.) 

I I I will now show you how transition is indi- 

NOTATION OF cated by the notat i on . \v e use a small note 
TRANSITION. bridge . notej thus . sd but you must not 



measure its importance by its size, as it is really the most important 
note in the transition. 
KEY G. 

writes: dmrdt|d s dmrdt|d 

In singing this you must be as careful of the bridge-tone as when 
singing from the modulator. (This is practised, a pause being 
made on the bridge-tone to catch the correct sound of the new key.) 

When the key is changed for a few pulses only, it is not consid- 
ered necessary to alter the tones or use a bridge-note, but simply 
to substitute a new tone for fah on the same pitch as te of the new 
key. This new tone is called fe. (Writes fe 



THE IMPERFECT 
METHOD. 



between s and f on the modulator and practises.) 
The method of denoting transition by bridge- 
notes is termed the perfect method, and that which substitutes fe 
for fah the imperfect method. 

Exercises in translating from the perfect to the 
imperfect method, and vice versa, should now be 
frequently employed. The teacher points to the 
modulator and sings d t| d Sj. Pupils imitate in the 
imperfect method by singing s fe S r. 

S d 1 Transition to the first flat key may be 

r t taught by the same process as above. In 

* _\ this, fah becomes doh, and te of the 

original key is displaced by fah of the new 

r s key. In the imperfect method the new 

d f tone is named ta (pronounced taw). It 

t ri should also be noticed that when a transition 

lj r is made to a sharp key, i.e. where the dis- 

, tinguishing tone is formed by sharpening 



TRANSITION. 143 

the corresponding tone of the original key, as f 
becoming fe, the mental effect of the tune is bright- 
ened and intensified. This may be accounted for 
by the fact that soh, the tone of brightness, becomes 
the foundation tone of the new key, and so adds 
color to all the others. When the transition is made 
by flattening' te of the original key, the opposite 
effect is produced, and the tune becomes depressed 
and gloomy through the influence of fah, which 
becomes the foundation tone of the new key. 

Exercises for modulator and black-board practice : 

Stepwise progression, s fe S. 

IMPERFECT METHOD. 
KEYS C TO E. 

dmdrssfesmfrdtid 
ndfrsfeslsd'mrrd 
drfmsfesnsfesfrd 
slmflsfesnrftird 
dmrfnsfesdnfrtid 
smlsfeslfrsdrtid 

Stepwise progression, 1 ta 1, d 1 ta 1. 

d s n f 1 d 1 ta 1 s f 1 s t d 1 
d 1 t d 1 1 m f 1 s 1 ta 1 s t d 1 
dfrsd'talstd'mfrd 
n r s f 1 s 1 ta 1 d 1 t 1 s d 1 
d 1 t 1 s d 1 ta 1 s d 1 s t 1 t d 1 
dmrfmsfltalsd'td 1 



144 THE TEACHER S HANDBOOK. 

Pe and ta approached by leap : 
KEYS E TO G. 

mdmrslfesmfrslfrd 
smdrfeslfrsfesnffm 
dtidsnlfesmfesfmrsd 
d BI r t| d m r fe B d f r d 1| t| d 
drtidslfesmd'feslrrd 
mrsfeBrdtifesdmsfrd 

KEYS C TO E. 

d f m r s d'ta Is ta 1 d 1 s f f m 
mrfmstalsd'fmrsftjd 
d 1 t d 1 s 1 ta ta 1 s f ta 1 s d 1 t d 1 
d f m r s d 1 ta 1 s d 1 m f ta 1 t d 1 

PERFECT METHOD. 

In denoting transition by the perfect method, the 
name of the new key, with its distinguishing tone, is 
always written immediately above the bridge-note. 

TRANSITION TO FIRST SHARP KEY. 
KEY C. G.t. f.C. 

dmrdsls s dmrddt|d d smfrdt|d 

KEY D. A.t. f.D. 

d ti d m r r s *r d t, d 1| S, d d s 1 f m f r d 

KEY G. D.t. f.G. 

dsil|t|dmr r sdt|dmrs s rmfmrsd 

KEY Bj?. F.t. f.Bb. 

d si m, BI li fi Si m .l, S| d r t, 1| s, s .ri B< fi n, 1, t, d 

KEY AJ7. Et?.t. f. Ab. 



KEY F. C.t. f.F. 

m d s n r f m ir 1 d 1 t d 1 1 t d 1 d 's n 1 f m r d 



TRANSITION. 145 

TRANSITION TO FIRST FLAT KEY. 
KEY A. f.D. A.t. 

dmrdfrmmtd'lfrrs s d t| d s ( 1| t| d 

KEY C. f.F. C.t. 

smlsffmfdmsfmfmrsmfsttd 1 

KEY F. f.B[7 F.t. 

dtidBlfBUnf-mrsfrnmlBfrstid 

KEY G. f.C. G.t. 

n s r f t, r d r l s d 1 m f f m r S| d t, r f t, d 

During the earlier lessons in transition it is necesary 
to make a slight pause at the bridge-tone until the 
effect of the tones of the new key can be anticipated. 
The simplicity of the Tonic Sol-fa notation of transi- 
tion is somewhat misleading. It may be imagined 
that when the names of the tones in the new key 
are so clearly indicated there can be no difficulty 



CAUSE OF DIFFICULTY I experienced in singing them correctly, 
IN TRANSITION. | but in practice this is found to be far 



from the case. However simple the notation may 
be, the fact still remains that it is with the thing 
itself that the difficulty lies, and this cannot be 
overcome without the exercise of a definite mental 
exertion. Whenever the key is changed the mental 
effect of every tone of the scale is also changed, and 
during the first few pulses of the transition it is 
somewhat uncertain, as each scale is struggling for 
supremacy, the old being already established in the 
mind, and the new endeavoring to displace it and 
become supreme. The following will serve to ill us- 



146 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

trate what takes place in the simplest of all transitions, 
viz., from Tonic to Dominant or to the first sharp 
key : 

Firm d 1 becomes Gloomy f. 
Piercing t " Calm Pi. 

Plaintive 1 Rousing r- 

Bright s " Firm d 

Gloomy f is supplanted by Piercing t|- 
Calm m becomes Plaintive 1|. 
Rousing r Bright S|- 

If care is necessary in singing transitions of one 
remove only, greater care is required when more 
remote transitions are being dealt with. When two 
tones of the original key are displaced, the transition 
is termed a transition of two removes ; when three 
tones are displaced, three removes, and so on, the 
number of removes being indicated 
by the number of tones which are 
displaced. The difficulty of singing the transition 
increases in proportion to the number of removes by 
which the transition is made. A common error is to 
suppose that a transition of one remove necessarily 
implies that the transition is made from C to G. On 
the contrary, transitions are calculated from any key, 
thus, from D to A would be one sharp remove, 
from D to E two sharp removes, and from D f o B 
three sharp removes, and vice versa, as from B to D 
would be three flat removes. When the distinguish- 
ing tone is formed by sharpening i.e. raising the 




TRANSITION. 147 

corresponding tone of the original key, the transition 
is said to be to a sharp key, and when by flattening 
i.e lowering it is said to be to a flat key. In the 
Extended Modulator the sharp keys are placed to the 
right, and the flat keys to the left. For convenience 
of reference the key signatures of the staff notation 
with the scale of absolute pitch are added. 

In teaching it is not advisable to display the com- 
plete modulator until each individual transition has 
been studied. A much clearer idea of the facts of a 
new transition can be conveyed by building up, from 
pupils' dictation, the new scale side by side with the 
old. By this method pupils are enabled to investigate 
for themselves, and the distinguishing tones of the 
new key with the corresponding number of altered 
tones are readily discovered. When this has been 
done the connection between the modulator and the 
notation may be demonstrated by the teacher pointing 
short phrases on _the modulator, and requiring the 
pupils to write them on the blackboard, using bridge- 
notes at the proper places. The following will serve 
for this purpose : 

d s m d m l| ti d 

s m f r 8 d t, d 

d m r s d 's f m 

s d 1 t 1 r S| ti d 

d s f 1 s r f m 

The process may be reversed with advantage, the 
teacher writing the exercises on the board and requir- 
ing the pupils to point them on the modulator, 



THE 


EXTENDED MODULATOR. 


H-D 


b Ab 


Eb 


Bb 


F C G D 

--t-- rt 


A 

jt 


E 

tt 


B 

-l-lr- 


:>JT 

w= 


fffep: 


$ 


fr ~~ 


Si 


5|ri=|E 


m 


P 




_ 


t *d 


j 


w 


T 


0~ 


G 


D A E B 




c" 


G$ 


ml 




r 1 


8 


d 1 


Fi 


f 1 


Fi 




se 




ba 


PI 1 


























se 




ba 


t 


Ei 


Pi 1 


Ei 


1 r ' 


8 


d 1 


f 


r 1 


S 


d 1 


f 




b 




tt 


se 


ba 


t 


PI 




ba 


t 


PI 


1 


D' 


r 1 


Di 


s d 


f 






d 1 


f 






se 


b 




* 


ba t 


PI 


1 


1 


t 


PI 


1 


r 


S 


c 


DOH 1 


Ci 


f 




se 








se 




ba 


B 


TE 


B 


PI 1 


r 


8 


d 


i 


r 


8 


d 


f 


b 


ta 
le 


* 


se 




ba 


t, 


i 

66 




ba 


t, 


PI 


A 


LAH 


A 


r s 


d 


f 




8 


d 


f 






b 


la 
se 


* 


ba 


t, 


PI 


1, 


ba 


ti 


PI 


1, 


r 


G 


SOH 


G 


d f 






se, 


f 






se. 




b 


fe 
ba 


5 


t, n 


1, 


r 


B| 


n 


! 


r 


Si 


d 


F 


FAH 


F 




se, 




ba, 




se. 




ba, 


t, 


E 


ME 


E 


1, r 


B| 


d 


f, 


r 


S| 


d 


f, 




b 


ma 
re 


* 


se, 


ba, 


ti 


"I 




ba, 


t, 




li 


D 


RAY 


D 


s, d 


f, 






d 


f, 






se, 


b 


de 


* 


ba, t| 


PI, 


1, 


T| 


ti 


PI, 


1, 


T\ 


S| 


C 


DOH 


C 


f, 




se. 












ba, 


! 


t. 


f~) \ 


"I 1| 


I| 


B| 


d| 



THE MINOR MODE. 149 

Exercise for modulator and blackboard practice : 

Two SHARP REMOVES. 
KEY C. D.t.m. d.f.C. 

dmrdfmr r dt|dmfrs s l s f m f r d 

KEY G. A.t.m. f.d.G, 

d t, dslfs tfmfr dr t, d rmfrdt|d 

KEY Bt?. C.t.m. f.d.BJ?. 

d S| 1, r t| r S, *.s 1 t d 1 f m r r m ,r, f| 1, s, t| d 

KEY F. G.t.m. d.f.F. 

d mfrsdf m rdt,dmr s HI s rft|d 

Two FLAT REMOVES. 
KEY C. d.f.B)? C.t.m. 

s m 1 r f m 1 it, d S, m, f, 1, TI m .r m f r d t, d 

KEY A. d.f.G. A.t.m. 

d ti d Si 1, f| d d r m f r t| r BI s .f| m, n s, t t r d 

KEY Et> d.f.Dt?. Et?.t.m. 

d m f 1 r t, d r m r f m d r t| fy t, d m r s d 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE MINOR MODE. 

IN the foregoing chapters we have used only one 
mode of treating the tones of the scale, viz., that in 
which dob. is recognized as the fundamental or key 
tone, but now other modes fall to be studied and 
explained. The ear is never satisfied with a tune 
in which it cannot find some prominent tone upon 
which to rest as on a centre of gravity. Don is the 



t$o THE TEACHERS HANDBOOK:. 

tone most commonly used in this respect, but it is 
possible to treat any other tone in a similar manner, 

I and some of the Ancient Modes have 
11 j -^i i 

actually done so with a very pleasing 



effect. However, with the exception of the LAH 
Mode all others have fallen into disuse, this being 
considered best adapted to modern ideas of harmony. 
Modes are termed Major or Minor according to the 
nature of the chord upon which they are built ; thus 
the DOH chord being Major, i.e. having a Major third 
from the root, with a Minor third above, is termed 
a Major chord, while the LAH chord having a Minor 
third from the root with a Major chord above, is 
termed a Minor chord. Practically, 



in general use, viz. : 

The Major, or DOH Mode, and 

The Minor, or LAH Mode. 

In teaching the Minor mode, the first matter of 
importance is to impress the effect of the LAH chord 
by practising the tones 1 d Pi only. If this is dwelt 
upon sufficiently it will soon be felt that the. mental 

I ALTERATION OF I e ff* ect f the tones is strongly in- 
MENTAL EFFECT. | fluenced by the effect of lah. The 
sad effect of lah will be intensified, and a restful 
feeling will also be experienced when ending on lah ; 
doh will lose its strong, reposeful effect, and will be 
almost as sad as lah ; me will gain in breadth and 
grandeur without losing its former plaintiveness. The 
Minor mode is never so easily sung as the Major, 



THE MINOR MODE. 15! 

even by the best singers ; still, practice will soon estab- 
lish the new mental effects, and the Minor mode will 
become comparatively easy. 

INTRODUCTORY PHRASES IN THE MINOR MODE. 

1, dml l.ndl, Imdl, 

l,dl|m l|dmdl, 1, d 1, m d 1, 

Imdl 1, n n d n 1, 1 d m d m 1, 

When the effect of the Minor mode has been 
established by the use of the above exercise, the 
construction of the Minor scale may be studied. The 
Ancient or Historical form, so called because of its 
employment in old national melodies, 
consists of the tones of the scale 
arranged in precisely the same order as in the Major. 
Many fine specimens of this form still exist, one of 
the best known being the old Scottish air, "John 
Anderson, my Jo." Modern harmony, however, re- 
quires that the Tonic of any mode should be supplied 
with a leading note, i.e., a note placed a semitone 
below the Tonic to which it leads, as ~ This is 

formed by displacing s and substituting se, which is 
written a semitone below 1. This is termed the 
Harmonic Minor, because of its adapt- 
ability to the requirements of har- 
mony. In singing, it will be felt that there is an 
awkward gap between f and se, being a semitone 
greater than any other interval of the scale. In order 
to obviate this difficulty another new tone, named ba, 



THE ANCIENT 
MINOR. 




1$2 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

(pronounced bay\ is introduced between f and g. 
THE MELODIC ' This * s tcrmc ^ the Melodic Minor on 



I MINOR. | account of the more pleasing melody 
formed by the introduction of ba. 

ANCIENT MINOR. HARMONIC MINOR. MELODIC MINOR. 

1 1 1 

36 86 

s 

ba 

f f f 

m m m 



d d d 

t, t, t, 

1, 1, li 

Musical theorists have drawn some fine technical 
distinctions between the manner in which the various 
modes are to be sung ascending and descending, but 
their opinions differ so widely that they would only 
tend to confuse the inexperienced teacher. The 
point to be kept in view is not how to sing the whole 
scale stepwise, but how to sing the tones in any order. 
It will be observed that the difference between the 
various modes lies between the sixth and seventh 
tones only. They may be briefly described as follows : 

SEVENTHS i ^ e Essential to the Modern Minor. 



SIXTHS 



Sob. Seldom used. 
Ba Occasional. 
Fah Essential. 



THE MINOR MODE. 153 

In teaching, it is advisable to build up the Ancient 
Minor side by side with the Major on the board, 
showing the fundamental point of difference to be in 
the interval of a third from the Root, then show the 
necessity for a leading tone (se) and finally for the 
sharp sixth (ba). 

In the Melodic Minor the intervals 

between the four upper tones correspond 

s exactly with the Major, the third being 

1 ba the only interval in which there is any 

essential difference. 

In all exercises in the Minor mode, the 

f r tones 1 and d should be frequently intro- 

m duced, and the Minor chord 1| d Pi should 

d be given as the key chord before commenc- 

~^' ing. As doh is the key-tone of the Major, 

^ 1 so lah. is the key-tone of the Minor. To 

prevent confusion in octave marks and the 
relation of tones in absolute pitch, 
the name of the Major key is retained 
and the pitch of lah. indicated in addition, thus, 
Key C, Lah is A ; Key G, Lah is E. 

Major mode exercises : 

FOR MODULATOR AND BLACKBOARD PRACTICE. 
KEY F. LAH is D. 

li d t| d 1| d m r m d t| r d ti 1| 

m d 1 1 f r m d 1, d t, n d ti 1, 

d m 1| d ti r d m ], ti d r m m 1, 

1, dnllmfnlfmrtinl, 




154 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK* 

KEY D. LAH is B. 

1 m d r t, m 1, t d m 1 1 d 1 t 1 
m d 1 m f 1 r td'lfrmml 

dmlmltld'ltmrdt, 1 

1 f m r 1 t m 1 d 1 m 1 d 1 r 1 t 1 

With Essential Seventh (se) in stepwise progression. 
KEY C. LAH is A. 

1 d 1 t 1 m 1 se 1 t d 1 r 1 t 1 se 1 

d 1 t 1 d 1 1 se 1 m r m f n 1 se 1 

m 1 se 1 d 1 t r 1 t -1 t m d 1 1 se 1 

d m 1 t 1 se 1 1 d 1 1 f r 1 se 1 

KEY E. LAH is CJJ. 

1, d n d 1, Be, 1) d PI 1 t n 1 se 1 

m d f m 1 se 1 n f r t| m 1, sei li 

d t 1 d t 1 se 1 d n 1 d 1 se 1 

1ml d m 1 se 1 f r m d 1| sei li 

With se approached by leap. 
KEY G. LAH is E. 

d 1| sei 1| d t| sei li t| d m r d t t 1| 

li d 1| m 1 se 1 m m se 1 d r t| 1, 

li d t| sei 1| d m r d se, 1, r n se, 1| 

m f m 1 se 1 f m se 1 m d t| set 1| 

KEY A. LAH is Fjf. 

d t 1. d t 1 se 1 d r t se 1 se 1 

m d r t| d 1, t| sei li f| ni| r, m, sei 1| 

I, d 1, m d t, 1, se, 1, m, sei 1, d ti 1| 

li n, 1, d t| m I se ( 1| d t| se! li d 1| 



CHROMATIC TONES. 155 

With ba and se in stepwise progression. 
KEY D. LAH is B. 

1 se 1 m ba se 1 t d 1 PI 1 se 1 t 1 

m 1 se 1 d 1 t 1 se ba se 1 t n se 1 

m m ba se 1 t di 1 se se ba se 1 m 1 

1 se ba m ba se 1 t d 1 1 m d 1 t se 1 

Fab. is frequently required in the Minor mode. 
Like the other tones it is influenced by the effect of 
the Minor and becomes more solemn than in the 
Major. It should be frequently contrasted with ba 
in order to establish its mental effect. 

Exercises with fah and ba contrasted : 
KEY D. LAH is B. 

1 m d 1, f - m 1 m ba se se t 1 
1 d 1 t 1 se bam 1 d 1 1 f m r n 1, 
d 1 1 t n ba se 1 t d 1 rc f r d t| 1, 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

CHROMATIC TONES. 

THE scale, composed of the unaltered tones d r Pi f 
S 1 1 d 1 is termed the Diatonic scale. The term Chro- 
matic is broadly applied to all tones which lie between 
the tones of the diatonic scale. Chromatics are 
named from the notes immediately above or below 
in the diatonic scale for which they are substituted, 
thus, f f e ; s se ; r ra ; d de. Sharp chromatics 
are indicated by the vowel , as de re fe se le ; and 



156 

flat chromatics by the vowel a (pronounced aw\ as 
ra ma la ta. All chromatics suggest a change of 
key, and as a rule have their model in the distinguish- 
ing tones of the key suggested. By comparing the 
tones in the various columns of the Extended Modu- 
lator it will thus be seen that fe is t of the first sharp 
MODEL OF | remove ; ta is f of first flat remove ; 
CHROMATICS. [ re is se of the first sharp remove ; 
Pia is f of the second flat remove, etc.; the sharp 
chromatics being related to te of some sharp remove, 
and the flat chromatics to fab. of some^/^/ remove. 
A knowledge of these facts will aid materially in 
teaching chromatics. The time at the disposal of the 
ordinary school teacher will not admit of a thorough 
investigation of this somewhat complicated subject, 
and, unless in cases where the teacher has had special 
advantages in musical training, it is not advisable to 
attempt to teach difficult chromatic intervals. The 
simplest form of approaching and quitting chromatics 
is by stepwise progression, as S fe S, HI re m, r ma 
r, 1 ta 1. Se being an essential of the Diatonic 
Minor scale is not considered as being chromatic. 
All chromatics follow the leading tendency of the 

I LEADING TENDENCY I tones upon which they are modelled, 
OF CHROMATICS. | thus sharp chromatics have an up- 
ward inclination like te, and flat chromatics a down- 
ward inclination like fah. 

In teaching, the chromatics should be compared 
with fah. or te, as the case may be, and their resem- 
blance noted. One chromatic only should be studied 
at a time, and its effect established by frequent 



CHROMATIC TONES. 



157 



repetition. The following method may be applied in 
teaching all chromatic tones : 



THE TEACHER SINGS 

d m r f d 
1 



THE PUPILS RESPOND : 



s i r m 1 
d 1 s m d f 

n s f m s y Ita : II : 

d m f r m 
m d s m r 
s 1 f r d 

By the above means the attention is concentrated 
on ta 1, and pupils become familiar with its effect as 
approached from any tone of the scale. This should 
be followed by the pupils singing the above or similar 
exercises, ta 1 being introduced at the close of each. 

The sharp chromatics are most easily sung when 
approached from the tone above, as m re m, t le t, 
r de r ; and the flat chromatics from the tone below, 
as 1 ta 1, s la s, r ma r. 

Exercises in Chromatic tones : 
KEYD. 

msmrfmrmar 

fmdrmarsf m 

1 se 1 m re m d r 

t d 1 tal t d' 1 se 

m 1 se 1 t le t d 1 

rfmslasfm 

re m f r de r s 1 



d 

s 

m 

d 1 

d 

d 



de 
1 
s 
1 



1, 
r 
s 
r 



t, 
ra 



m 
r 
f 
se 1 le t 



f e f 
las 



d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
m 




158 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

TIME. 

IF the methods of teaching Time, described in Part 
L, have been carefully studied, there should not be 
any serious difficulty encountered in teaching the 
more intricate divisions of rhythm prescribed for 
senior divisions. 

The division of the pulse into three- 
quarters and quarter may be intro- 
duced by the method described on page 86. The 
notation of this rhythm is | ., : ., || the comma 
remaining as in the last quarter of ta fa te fe, and 
the dot being moved almost close to it. (See page 
47.) In singing it is frequently confused with taa tai. 
This may be avoided by comparing one with the 
other, and showing how fe leads up to the pulse which 
follows, as : 

|<l,r :m.f |m .r :d Id ,,r:m .,f|n M r:d 

| Taa tai Taa tai Taa tai Taa |Taa fe Taa fe Taa fe Taa. 
Exercises for Taa fe : 
a. Id :r .,r|m :r ,,r|d :t|.t,|d : 



d .,d:r,r |m.m :r Id.d :t, .,t,|d :- 

c. Id :r.r |n ,,m:r .,r|d :t|.t, |d : 

d. Id :r .,r|m :r .,r|d.,d :t|.ti |d : 

d .,d* |m.m:r.,r|d :t, 



TIME. 159 

It may be pointed out that the effect of this rhythm 
is bright and bold, and is frequently employed in 
martial music. 

I The division of the pulse into thirds 
TAA TAI TEE. < .L /-/- 1-1 
I has a smooth, pleasing effect, which 



contrasts pleasantly with the sharp piquant effect of 
the previous rhythm. In teaching, it may be illus- 
trated by short phrases, with the accent on the third 
syllable, as : 

Merri-ly o - ver the| lakelet we glide. 

Exercises for Taa tai tee. 
a. 

d :r,r,r|m i:r<r<rd :t u t u t, d 



I d<d<d :r m^m :r Id 



:t u t u ti | d 



c. 



|d :r<r<r |iwi:r Id :t u t u ti|d 

d. 

I d<d<d :r ,r<r | n :r Id 4 d<d :t|<tut | d 

With Taa-ai tee. 



a. 



b. 

.-.d:^ Is^sid' Id'r.d'ts 



c. 
Id,- 



d. 

,- <d im^m s ,-,8 :d' |d' r ,d' :s r 



160 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

With -aa tai tee. 

Id* :-,r,m|r i 



d' i-.r.nlr :-Af|s :l,-,t |d' :- 



d :r Km,f :s II :s 



d :- <t,<d | r :-,d<r I m :- f ,s 1 1 ,- ,t : 



Quarter-pulse Rests are seldom used in vocal music, 
but they are valuable als a means of cultivating exact- 
ness in singing intricate divisions of rhythm. They 
may occur at any part of a pulse. 

EXAMPLE : 

On 1st quarter, sa fa te fe : 

Id : ,r.n,f|s : ,f,m,r|d : ,d.t,d|r.t, : d 

On 2nd quarter, ta sa te fe : 
Id :r, .m,f|s :f, .m,r|d :d, ,ti,d|r.t| :d 

On 3rd quarter, ta fa se fe : 
Id :r,m. ,f |B :f,m. ,r|d :d,t|. ,d|r.ti :d 

On 4th quarter, ta fa te se : 
Id :r,m>f, |s :f,m.r, Id :d,t|.d, |r.t, :d 

In studying the more advanced rhythms, the com- 
mon divisions of the pulse should not be neglected 



TIME. 1 6 1 

but should be frequently reviewed and combined 
with the others in suitable exercises. The Elementary 
Rhythms, contained in Book II., and Intermediate 
Rhythms, in Book III. of the "Canadian Music 
Course," afford an excellent series of exercises for 
this purpose. 

Syncopation is the term applied to rhythm in 
which the regularity of the accent is interrupted or 
disturbed, as : 

d :-.r l-.rn :- .d II 

iTaa -aa tai -aa tai -aa tai. 1 1 

The time-name for syncopations is formed in the 
same manner as for ordinary continuations, viz., by 
dropping the consonant and retaining the vowel of 
the time-name that would be used for a note struck 
on the same part of the pulse, thus : 

Id :d .r |r .m :m,r |r .d :d.ti |d : 

|Taa Taa tai Taa tai Taa tai|Taa tai Taa tai Taa aa 

Becomes : 

Id :-.r |-.m :- .r l-.d :d .t, |d :- 

JTaa aa tai aa tai aa tai | aa tai Taa tai Taa aa 



EXERCISES IN SYNCOPATION. 

a. Id :- .r -.m :f Is :- .m |-.r :d II 

b. |d :- .t, -.d :-.r |d :r .t, |d : 



- Id :- .m |-.s :d' Id 1 :- .s |-.m :d 
. Id :- ,r |-.m :-].r Id :- .m |-.r :d 



162 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



CHAPTER XX. 

EAR EXERCISES FOB SENIOR DIVISIONS. 

IN introducing Ear Exercises at the commencement 
of a new session, the work of the previous session 
REVIEWING I snou ^ be carefully reviewed, in order 
EAR EXERCISES. | that the teacher may be enabled to 



gain a correct estimate of the individual ability of the 
various pupils. This can easily be accomplished by 
means of written exercises. Let each pupil be sup- 
plied with slips of paper on which to write the names 
of the tones of at least three exercises, similar to 
those used in the previous division. If each pupil's 
name or number be signed to the slips when returned 
the teacher will be enabled to form a correct estimate 
of the degree of difficulty which may be safely intro- 
duced into the succeeding exercises. The difference 
between tones approached by leap and those ap- 
proached by step should be carefully studied and 
contrasted. Phrases of three tones 
in stepwise succession, followed by a 
leap, should be given for this purpose. The pupils 
should be told to give most attention to the last tone. 



LEAPS IN 
EAR EXERCISES, 



s 1 t r 1 


f m r s 


m f s d 1 


1 s f r 


m r d f 


r m f 1 


s f PI d 


d't 1 f 


s 1 s m 


f m f 1 


r m r s 


d't d'f 


m f m 1 


d r d f 


s 1 s d' 


m r m d 



An interesting exercise may be given by the teacher 
intimating that the tones of the scale will be sung 



EAR EXERCISES FOR SENIOR DIVISIONS. 163 

upwards or downwards, but that one will be omitted. 
The pupils will listen with interest for the point where 
the leap is made. 

EXAMPLE : 
d r m f 1 t d 1 , or d 1 t 1 s m r d 

If any exercise should be found too difficult, it 

should be analyzed tone by tone. The name of the 

first tone being discovered, the teacher will add the 

ANALYSIS OF 1 secon d, then the third and fourth. 

DIFFICULT EXERCISES. I Pupils will thus feel that they have 

mastered the exercise, instead of feeling discouraged 

by having the answer told by the teacher. 

EXERCISES OF FIVE TONES. 



d r m r s 
1 t d 1 s m 
s 1 t d'l 
d t| 1| d S| 


m f s 1 r 
f s 1 f n 
1 t d 1 1 f 
m f r r d 


f m r s m 
r m d r PI 
s PI r f m 
r n f r d 



The tones fe and ta should be introduced frequently 
after the lessons on transition have been given, each 
being treated separately. Exercises in telling on 
which number fe or ta is sung are best adapted for 
the first lessons. The key must be clearly defined 
by first sol-faing the tones of the Don chord. 

Which is fe ? 



I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


d 


m 


S 


fe 


8 


f 


PI 


r 


fe 


S 


s 


fe 


S 


f 


m 


s 


d 1 


1 


s 


fe 


d 


m 


fe 


s 


d 


f 


s 


1 


fe 


s 



164 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



Which is ta ? 



1 ta 
m d' 



ta 1 



ta 1 



d 1 ta 1 t d 1 



I 2 3 

d 1 t d 
s ta 1 



4 5 

ta 1 



m 



f ta 1 



d 1 t 1 ta 1 



I MENTAL EFFFCT OF 
FLAT AND SHARP KEYS 
CONTRASTED. 



The brightening effect of transition to the first 
sharp key may be contrasted with 
the depressing effect of transition to 
the first flat key by exercises, in which pupils listen 
and tell which is used. In this also the key must be 
clearly defined as above. 

Whether is a transition to a sharp or flat key 
suggested ? 



m r d m s f e s 

s 1 s m d 1 ta 1 

f m r d m f e s 

d 1 t 1 ta 1 s f 



d, t d 1 s 1 ta 1 

d m r s s f e s 

d f m s f e f e s 

s t d 1 ta 1 t d 1 



Exercises in writing in correct time and tune should 
be preceded by exercises in telling how many tones 

I TUNE AND TIME I are one P u ^ se > two pulses, or a half- 
COMBINED. I pulse in length. Short exercises only 
should be used at first, and each should be sung once 
to laa, to enable pupils to catch the accent of the 
measure. The form of composition known as the 
Single Chant furnishes a convenient variety of exer- 
cises for this purpose. As they are to be found in 



EAR EXERCISES FOR SENIOR DIVISIONS. 



every Church Tune-book, a few examples only are 
necessary. The " reciting tone " usually occupies a 
complete measure without any definite duration sign, 
but for our purpose it should be written as a two- 
pulse note. The double bar is usually placed at the 
end of each section, but it is unnecessary to do so in 
writing ear exercises. 
KEY G. 



d :- 



KEY G. 

n : Is :f 



- f :-m :r d 



m : r : 



r :r 



KEY F. 

s :- 



s : Ms : 



KEY F. 

d : Ir :m 

KEY C. 

d : In :s 



f :- llf :- 



3 

:r.d|d 



m :r I d : 



d : 



d 1 : Is :n |r :r |d : 



KEY G. 

n : ir 



:d If :-||f :- 



:r II 



d : 



In giving the above, a pause should be made at the 
end of the first section. 

The tones of the LAH chord should be sung as 
a preface to all ^exercises in the Minor mode. 

n 1 t se 1 

n f n se 1 
1 d 1 1 t m 
li f n se ( 1| 



1 n d 1 t 1 
d 1 t 1 se 1 
n d 1 1 t se 
n 1 t se n 


1 d 1 1 se 1 
1 se 1 f m 
n 1 se t 1 
d t| n d 1| 



1 66 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

CHAPTER XXI. 

THE STAFF NOTATION. 

THE objection most frequently urged against the 
Tonic Sol-fa system by its opponents is that " it pre- 
vents pupils from learning the Staff Notation." This 
objection can be met with an unqualified denial and 
proved beyond dispute. In England, where the Tonic 
Sol-fa system .has had a fair trial for the past twenty- 
five years, "it has made more readers of the Staff 
Notation than all other systems combined." The 
truth of this statement, made several years ago, has 
never once been challenged. In the examination for 
the Elementary Certificate of the Tonic Sol-fa College, 
the Staff Notation is not required, but in the Inter- 
mediate examination there is an optional requirement 
that candidates sing at sight from the Staff Notation. 
Of those who pass this examination, statistics show 
that about eighty per cent, pass in both notations. The 
difficulty of teaching the Staff Notation to young 
children is admitted by the majority of teachers, and 
all of the so-called improved systems of teaching 
employ some kind of introductory notation in some 
cases numerals, in others, patent character notes, 
which serve as a medium of instruction until the Staff 
is introduced. The multiplicity of those systems 
only tends to prove that there are inherent difficulties 
connected with the Staff which necessitate a simpler 
system of notation for elementary instruction. The 



THE STAFF NOTATION. 167 

simplicity of the Tonic Sol-fa Notation has already 
been alluded to. While sufficient in itself for all 
practical purposes of vocal music, and furnishing an 
almost illimitable repertoire of choral music, it pro- 
vides the most successful means of introduction to 
the Staff Notation. The stage at which the transi- 
tion from Sol-fa to the Staff should be made, depends 
largely on the degree of ability attained in the use 
of the former. For general school purposes we would 
recommend that the transition be made not earlier 
than Division V., and better results would be secured 
by delaying until that has been fully mastered. The 
two notations should then be studied concurrently, 
the more difficult steps being first studied by the 
Tonic Sol-fa system, in one Division, and translated 
to the Staff in the next If the thing has been 
thoroughly learnt by the Sol-fa system, the signs only 
require to be learnt when the Staff is reached. This 
can best be accomplished by written exercises in 
translating from one notation to the other. In the 
Tonic Sol-fa method of teaching the Staff Notation, 
the arrangement of topics is identical with those 
already described (see pages 9 and 134). Tune and 
Time are studied separately, and the same educa- 
tional principles which characterize the methods of 
the Tonic Sol-fa system are employed in teaching 
the Staff. 

FIRST LESSON IN THE STAFF NOTATION. 

Teacher. What is this ? (Points to dob. on first step modulator.) 
Class. That is dob. 



1 68 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

Teacher. If that is doh what do you call this ? (Sings dob.) 

Class. That is doh. 

Teacher. I do not think that both answers can be strictly correct. 
Is doh something that we can hear or simply something that we can 
see? 

Class. It is something we can hear. 

Teacher. Then your second answer must be correct, and your 
first is wrong. This (pointing to doh) is simply the sign for doh. 
Any other signs might have been taken for doh and the other tones, 
but we have taken those which have been found most useful. 
Suppose we take this desk as the sign for doh ; this chair, for me ; 
and this map for soh. Can you sing from a notation of desks, 
Chairs and maps ? 

Class. We'll try. 

Teacher. (Points a first step exercise from the articles indicated 
while pupils sing, and enjoy it.) You sang that very nicely ; but as 
a notation of such articles would be rather awkward to use, we will 
try something simpler. I will draw lines opposite d m and s, and 
you will sing from my pointing as before. (Draws lines as indi- 
cated ; class singing as directed.) This group of five lines and four 

d i spaces is called a staff, and the notation in which 

they are used is known as the Staff Notation. 

m We will now move the modulator a little higher. 

d (Places d m s opposite the three lower spaces. 

Pupils sing from pointing as before.) In this exercise we have d 
in a space, where are m and s ? 

Class. They are also in spaces. 

Teacher. Let us place d on a line. Where are m and s now 
placed ? 

Class. They are also on lines. 

Teacher. From this we get our first rule for 
reading from the Staff, viz.: That doh me and 
soh are similarly placed. 

Exercises in singing the tones d Pi s from the staff 
with doh in any position will now be given. It is 
a mistake to suppose that any one key is simpler 
than another. The rules given apply irrespective 
of key. 





THE STAFF NOTATION. 169 

Teacher. (Place the modulator as before with doh opposite the 
lower line.) Here we have d, m and 8 on lines, but where is the 
octave of d placed ? 

Class. It is in a space. 

Teacher. Quite right. Notes maybe placed either on lines or 
spaces. In this case we would have lah and t above soh, conse- 
quently d 1 must be in a space. From this we 
get the second rule, viz.: That Octaves are 
dissimilarly placed. If a note be on a line 
where must its octave be ? 
Class. In a space. 

Teacher. And if a note be in a space where must its octave be ? 
Class. On a line. 

The octaves of s and m will now be taught in a 
similar manner, the above rules being referred to for 
explanation. Modulator voluntaries similar to those 
used in first step lessons should now be given, the 
position of d being frequently changed, and pupils 
required to remember its location throughout each 
exercise. It is necessary that they become familiar 
from the outset with the notes in any key. No 
mention should be made of key signatures, sharps or 
flats, until the third step is reached, as this would 
only tend to confuse. 

Singing from notation will next be introduced. 
A staff of five lines being drawn on the black-board, 
with a square note to indicate the position of d, exer- 
cises similar to the following will be sol-faed from 
the teacher's pointing : 

A A ^ __^ mt 






i 70 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 




When it becomes necessary to have more than five 
lines, short lines named Ledger lines are added, as : 



The exercises in sight-singing should be followed 
by exercises in writing translations from the Tonic 
Sol-fa to the Staff Notation. By using the first step 
exercises in the " Canadian Music Course,' 1 Books I. 
and III., which are adapted to this purpose, much time 
may be economised, as it will only be necessary to 
indicate the numbers of the exercises to be translated. 



THE STAFF NOTATION. 171 

Time is indicated in the Staff Nota- 
TIME 

tion by the shape of the various notes. 



The notes in common use are as follows : 

Breve. Whole note. 1/2 note. 1/4 note. 1/8 note. 1/16 note. 1/32 note. 

I'll ? 

i i u 9 \ 

The Breve is now seldom used. 

It must be observed that there is no connection 



TERMS 1 between the terms note and pulse. A 
NOTEANQPuisE. j whole note is never equal to a whole 



pulse, in fact ft never indicates less than two pulses, 
and frequently is equal to as many as eight pulses. 
The relative values of the whole, half, and quarter- 
notes should first be explained. Simple exercises 
should then be translated from pupils' dictation, and 
written on the blackboard. 

EXAMPLE : 
write: i a : d |d : Id :d Id : II 

Teacher. In this exercise we will take the half-note to represent 
the pulse. As there is only one tone indicated, one line will be 
sufficient. How many pulses have we in the measure ? 

Class. We have two. 

Teacher. Which sign denotes the strong pulse ? 

Class. The upright bar. 

Teacher. We use the same sign for the strong pulse in the Staff 
Notation, but no sign is given for the medium or weak pulses. 



Teacher. Which note will we take to represent the first d ? 
Class. The half-note. 

Teacher. (Writes half-note in first measure.) And which for 
the second d ? 



172 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

Class. Another half-note. 

Teacher. As the next d is two pulses in length we must use a 
different note. Which shall it be ? 

Class. The whole note. 

Teacher. What reason can you give for taking the whole note ? 

Class. If one pulse is represented by a half- note, a two 'pulse 
tone must have a note that is equal to two half-notes. 

Proceeding by this method to build up the remain- 
der of the exercise, it will now appear as, 

hr rf- IT-TI- 1| 

The value of the notes is not affected by the stems 
being turned up or down. When the notes stand 
above the middle line, the stems are turned down, 
and when below, they are turned up. When placed 
on the middle line they may be turned in either direc- 
tion. The time-names should also be applied to the 
Staff in teaching time. The following shows the 
time-names when the pulse is represented by a half- 
pulse, quarter-note, and eighth-note respectively : 

Half-note Quarter-note Eighth-note 
to a pulse, to a pulse. to a pulse. 
One-pulse note, TAA. P ? f 

Two-pulse note, TAA A A. P f 

Two half-pulse notes, Taa tai. * * f f * * 

V v v v 

A dot placed immediately after a note increases its 
length by one-half of its oivn value, thus : 

. - - 9-^99 9'- 

\ M r r v v 

Time signatures are used to denote 
TIME SIGNATURES. . , r . 

the number of pulses in a measure. 




THE STAFF NOTATION. 



173 



The upper figure gives the number, and the lower 
the quality of the notes in the measure. 



Two half notes 
in a measure. 



Two quarter 
notes. 



Three quarter 
notes. 



Three half 
notes. 



Three eighth 
notes. 



|Four quarter 
notes. 



Six eighth 
notes. 



The sign is frequently used to represent four- 
pulse measure, being unfortunately substituted for 

,4- 4- . 

^ and also for g. The sign fp is also used to repre- 
sent two-pulse measure. The time signatures indi- 
cated by either jjz or 5 are usually termed Common 
Time. 

The following exercises are to be sung on one tone 
to the time-names, then to laa : 

QUARTER-NOTE TO A PULSE. 

FOUR-PULSE MEASURE. 

I _j I I I 




taa taa taa taa taa taa taa-aa taa taa taa-aa taa-aa taa-aa 






taa-aa taa-aa taa taa taa-aa taa taa taa taa taa-aa-aa-aa. 

--l I 




& ^-=11 



THREE-PULSE MEASURE. 




174 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



HALF-NOTE TO A PULSE. 



ro r r r ll 



HALF-PULSES. 






taa taa taa tai taa taa taa tai taa tai taa taa-aa-aa-aa. 











ii i FV \ N N i ]^^| 







TUNE AND TIME COMBINED. 












THE STAFF NOTATION. 



175 



1 -j_ p & i p. 

*+- 









WITH HALF-PULSES. 
--fV- 









SECOND STEP. 

Before introducing the tones of the Second Step, 
the tones of the DOH chord should be thoroughly 
practised in every available position on the staff. 
Ray will be easily recognized as 
occupying the next position above 
doh, and te the next below. Exercises adapted to 
this step (see page 92-93) should be sung from point- 
ing on the blank staff of five lines, in various keys. 
The object of exercises at this stage is not to aid 
to a conception of the tones, this has already been 
done, but to teach their correct location in any key. 




7 6 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



The necessity of changing the key frequently will 
be obvious. The position of the key-tone must also 
be kept before the mind throughout each exercise. 






EXERCISES IN TUNE. 

j-J-l ."I- 






I I I I ~ 

* m -f 

I I 9 










j <S 



=pgtte=^st3==i 

g Er 51 -^ F^g^r-J 



The sight-singing exercises on page 95, or the 
second-step exercises in the "Canadian Music Course," 
may be translated into the Staff and practised in 
addition to the above. 

The new points to be explained in 
this step are quarter-pulses, half-pulse 



TIME. 



THE STAFF NOTATION. 



177 



continuations, and silent pulses. In the Sol-fa Nota- 
tion rests are indicated by empty spaces, but in the 
Staff Notation signs of various shapes 
are employed for this purpose, each 



note having a rest of equal value. A dot placed 



immediately after a note increases its length by one- 



half. The following table shows the notes with rests 



of corresponding value : 




I 

When two or more eighth-notes, 
or notes of lesser value are intended 
to be sung to one syllable, the stems are joined 
together by a sign called a slur, thus : 

: -"Jzrzp^r ^r- isa| r ~^~E ' 

As in Tune, the position of the key- tone has to be 
kept in mind, it is equally important that in Time the 
Time-Signatures be remembered throughout. The 
following shows the notation of the new rhythms 
under various conditions : 



1/2 note 
to a pulse. 



TAA-aa tai. 
Tafatefe, 

Saa. 



1/4 note 
to a pulse. 

rc 



1/8 note 
to a pulse. 



f or f * 

llll bss 



The close resemblance bctweeen the signs for rests 
must be noticed. The whole-note rest is placed under 



i 7 8 



THE TEACHER S HANDBOOK. 



the line, while the half-note rest is placed above the 
line ; the quarter-note rest is turned to the right, and 
the eighth-note rest to the left. 

EXERCISES IN TIME. 



& 1 = -j^ {{{$ 

pf rfr=^fc 



taa taa taa-tai taa 



taa ta - fa - te - fe taa-aa 




THIRD STEP. 

In this step fah and lah are added and the scale 
is now complete. Fah occupies the next position 
below soh, and lah the next above. In practice, we 
have found the most satisfactory method of treating 
the complete scale to be that of 
teaching by Chord. It has already 
been shown that a Chord consists of a note with its 
third and fifth, which is simply two thirds in succes- 
sion. It will be noted that the lines or spaces of the 
Staff are arranged in thirds respectively, consequently 
the notes of a chord must be similarly placed on lines 



TEACHING BY 
CHORD. 



THE STAFF NOTATION. 179 

or spaces, and the octaves of either must be dissimi- 
larly placed, thus : If d Pi S be on the lines, S| Pl| d| 
must be in spaces. These facts should be clearly 
understood by the pupils before drilling on the com- 
plete scale. The names of the notes of each chord 
should now be thoroughly memorized, reading upwards 
as follows : d Pi s, m S t, 8 t r 1 , t r 1 f '. All of the 
above must be similarly placed with doh, whether 
it be on lines or spaces. The chords which are dis- 
similarly placed with doh. should now be memorized, 
thus : r f 1, fid 1 , 1 d 1 m', d 1 m 1 s 1 . This may be 
done by reading from the modulator at first, but 
latterly the modulator should be kept out of sight, 
and pupils trained to name the tones of any chord 
without any aid whatever, thus : 

TEACHER. CLASS. 

Read the tones of the DOH chord upwards. d Pi s 

" FAH " f 1 d 1 

' " RAY " " r f 1 

" Son " downwards. r' t S 

" LAH " m ; d 1 1 

Exercises in which all notes are on lines, or all on 
spaces should now be sung from pointing on a blank 
staff, until the relative positions of the notes in any 
key are thoroughly taught. These should be followed 
by sight-singing from the blackboard. The exercises 
on page 113 may be translated for this purpose. 



i So 



THE TEACHERS HANDBOOK. 




CLEFS. 

The Staff Notation represents the absolute pitch of 
notes, by means of signs called clefs. The clefs in 
general use are three in number, viz. 



G CLEF 



F CLEF 



C CLEF-H- 



The Great Staff is composed of eleven lines, named 
as follows : 



Owing to the difficulty in reading from such a large 
staff, it has been found necessary to divide it into two 
parts, with middle C as a ledger line between. The 
following represents the staff as usually written for 
vocal music, with the clefs in their proper places. 
Notice that the fourth line passes through the centre 
of the F clef, and that the G clef turns on the second 
line of the upper section of the staff. 



~g-D- 



THE STAFF NOTATION. 



The G and F clefs are always written in the above 
positions, but the C clef is placed in various positions, 
to adapt the staff to the compass of different voices 
and instruments. When placed on the first of a 
group of five lines it is called the Soprano clef ; second 
line, Mezzo-Soprano clef; third line, Alto clef; and 
fourth line, Tenor clef. 

In the following exercises notice the position of 
the key-tone in the respective clefs : - 

*=): 




KEY SIGNATURES. 
The staff is always understood 
to be in the key of C, unless 
marked otherwise. Pupils who 
have studied transition from the 
Modulator will understand that, 
when we wish to write a tune 
in the key of G, it becomes 
necessary to sharpen fab. of the 
old key, in order to have te of the 
neiv key just a little step below 
doh. Likewise when we change 



8 


C 


d 1 


C f 




B 


t 


B n 


f E 


J> 






m 


A 


1 


A r 


r 


G 


3 


G d 


d 


F 


f 


p ^t, 


t, 


E 


PI 


E 1, 


1, 


D 


r 


D s 


S| 


C 


d 


C f , 



IS2 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



from the key of C to F we flatten te, to have fah. of the 
new key just a little step above me. (See diagram at 
side). When a tune has to be written in the key of 
G, the sharp is placed on the F line, and every note 
on that line must be sung or played a semitone higher 
than in the key of C. This will not cause any diffi- 
culty to the Sol-fa pupil, who will simply think of the 
note as te. 

In the key of F, a flat is placed on the B line, and 
all notes on that line are sung or played a semitone 
lower than in the key of C. Pupils will easily recog- 
nise that the note on which the flat is placed is fah. 

By studying the transitions on the Modulator it 
will readily be seen how the sharps or flats are suc- 
cessively added to form the signatures for the more 
remote keys. The following table gives the order 
of the sharp keys on the right, and the flat keys on 
the left of C, which require no signature : 

TABLE OF KEY SIGNATURES. 
Read from centre, either left or right. 

B!? F C GDAEB 

]4-*-Tl^-r^-Tl-L^ 










RULES FOR FINDING Don. The last sharp to the 
right is te ; the last flat to the right is fah or the 
second last flat is always doh. 



THE STAFF NOTATION. 



FOURTH STEP. 

In the Staff Notation the key signature is seldom 
altered when a transition to a new key is made. In' 
this respect it is certainly ambiguous and confusing 
to the learner, and even the best singers have to pause 
and study the music before definitely comprehending 
the nature of the transition. This can only be 
accomplished by a careful study of the various key 
signatures, and the manner in which they are affected 
by the various accidentals. 

When fab. is sharpened it becomes fe, and when 
te is sharpened it becomes ta. A sharp or flat placed 
immediately before a note is termed an accidental. 

An accidental affects all notes on the line or space 
on which it is placed, within the measure, unless 
contradicted by a sign called a natural (jj). 

If a note has been raised a semitone, a natural will 
lower it to its original pitch ; if it has been lowered 
a semitone, a natural will raise it to its original pitch. 

EXERCISES IN TRANSITION. 
IMPERFECT METHOD. 










1 84 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK, 
BETTER METHOD. 






sd< 



Urn 



aF--g H 



t*c 



SI 



fe.t, 




fc: 






--*-&- 




FIFTH STEP. 

EXERCISES IN THB MINOR MODE. 
Son sharp is SE, and FAH sharp is BA. 



-,-, l~=l= =:r :{ | r=jz-i | ::r -^r_Jr^n 









t I 




THE STAFF NOTATION. 



'85 




As indicated in the Preface, the exercises are not 
intended to be sufficient in themselves for all practical 
purposes, but simply to serve as examples to be 
imitated by the teacher in preparing the daily music 
lesson. Space will not permit of a full discussion of 
the many technicalities of Theory and Notation. 
Teachers who wish to gain a more complete know- 
ledge of Musical Theory, are recommended to study 
the undermentioned text books, any of which can be 
obtained direct from Messrs. Curwen, Warwick Lane, 
London, E.G., or ordered through local booksellers : 
" The Staff Notation," price 8d.; " The Staff Notation 
Primer," price 6d.; " Musical Theory," Books I. and II., 
price 4d. each. The latter are specially useful. A 
complete course of exercises and songs for the school- 
room are contained in " The Canadian Music Course," 
published in three books, specially adapted to the 
requirements of Canadian Public and High Schools. 



i86 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

MARKS OP' EXPRESSION. 

NAME. SIGN. 

Mezzo (metsd), medium m. 

Piano (peeahno), soft p. 

Forte (fortay), loud ./. 

Fortissimo, very loud ff. 

Pianissimo, very soft pp. 

Crescendo (creshendo), getting louder cres.-=^_ 

Diminuendo (deemeenooendo) , getting softer dim . =- 

Decrescendo same as Diminuendo decres.-^=~ 

Slur, a sign denoting that two or more notes are to be s ^ff- $ol-fa. 
sung to one syllable f I* ~ 

Pressure Tone, rapid cres. on single tone < 

Sforzando (sfortzanndo), rapid dim. on single tone 

begun loud >, or sf. 

Rapid Swell, like pressure tone A 

Da Capo, repeat from the beginning D.C. 

Dal Segno, repeat from the sign D S. :$: 

TEMPO OR SPEED, 
i. SLOW. 

ITALIAN TERM. LITERAL MEANING. 

Largo (lahrgo) Broad, large. 

Grave (grahv) Heavy, grave. 

Adagio (adahgio) Slowly. 

Lento (lehnto) Sluggish, tardy. 

Larghetto (largetto) Less slow than Largo. 

II. MEDIUM. , 

Andante (andantay) Moderate. 

Andantino (andanteeno) Less slow than Andante. 

Moderate (modderahto) Moderate, sober. 

Allegretto (allegretto) Diminutive of Allegro. 

in. QUICK. 

Allegro (alleggro) Cheerful, brisk. 

Vivace (veevahchay) Sprightly, lively. 

Vivacissimo Superlative of vivace. 

Presto (pressto) Quick, nimbly. 

Prestissimo Superlative of presto. 

IV. CHANGES WITHIN A PHRASE. 

Accelerando Getting faster. 

Ritardando ) ^ . , 

Rallentando ' Getting slower. 



APPENDIX. 



ROTE SONGS. 



Key F. 



We meet aaain tosetber* 



i.We 
,2. A 



d :m |r :d 

meet a-gain to 
ring of hap-py 



t, :r | :m 

gether, With 
children, Each 



f :f |n :r 

faces bright and 
holds anoth-er's 



A. T. C. 



sweet, 
hand, 



We 
And 



d :m |r :d t| :r :m 



gladly greet each I oth-er, 
thus we stand u-| ni - ted, 



Our 
A 



r :s |fe :1 

teachers dear we 
mer-ry lit - tie 



greet, 
band, 



:s 

We're 

k All 



1 :s |f :n |> :m |f :s II :s |f :m |m :r |- 

ready for our jwork and play, We're! ready for our I singing, 
things are fair a-lround us now, While) working or whilej singing, 



:s 



:s |f :m r :m |f :s 



Our lhands are clean now,l see them, pray, And 
Our | eyes are bright with| hap-pi - ness, Our 



1 :s f :r 

hear ourvoi-ces 
voi-ces glad are 



r :d |- 

ringing, 
ringing, 



[Then 
I Then 



d :m |r :d 



as we meet to- 
as we meet to- 



t, :r I :m 

gether, We 

gether, We 



f :f |m :r 

cheerful-ly will 
cheerful-ly will 



say, 
say, 



jThat 
I That 



d :m |r :d 

we'll be kind and 
we'll be kind and 



t, :r | :m 

patient, That 
patient, That 



r :f |t, :r Id :- 

we'll be good to-j day. 
we'll be good to-| day. 



i8S THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

Ube Ibonest Uoab. 

Key G. A. T. C. 

[:S|.S| d :d ,d d :t .d r .r:t|.(ti)|d :r 


1 i. Oh a queer lit- tie chap i: 
\2. When win - ter draws near, Mi 

fl m .m :d .d |f .f :m ,m 


5 the honest 
ister Toad 

r : 

he, 


old toad, A 
goes to bed, And , 


1 1 funny old fellow is 
'I sleeps just as sound as a 

( d :d .d |r :r .r 




But when > 


m :r 

side of 
soft Api 

d :- 

tree 


.m |f .f :m .r 1 

the road, Neath the 
ril showers, He comes ) 

:t, ,d | 


un - der the stone by the 
1 May blos-soms fol - - low 

[ d :t| .1, |S| :t| ,r 

I shade of the old wil-low 
I out with a skip, jump and 

' r :r .r r :d ,r 

dressed all in brown from his 
k chan - ges his dress on - ly 

f :f .f |n :d .d 

vest that is silv - 'ry 
spring; and his old worn-out 

d :d .d r :r .r 

takes a long nap in the 
trou - sers and waist - coat, he 

i d :t, .1, s :t, .r 

1 walks in the cool dew-y 
1 stuffs the whole thing down his 


He is 


hop. 


He j 


m :n 

toe to 
once I 



white 


.PI PI :PI .PI \ 

his crown, Save his | 
con - fess, Ev' - ry ; 

\ 

H i 




With * 


m :r . 

heat of 
rolls in 

d :- 

night. < ... 


n |f :m .r ) 

the day, And 
a ball, And / 

" Raup, 


throat, 


"Krruk, ) 



ROTE SONGS. 



THE HONEST TOAD. CONTINUED. 



yaup,' 
krruk, 



:BI .BI |d :t, .d 

says the frog, From his 
' says the frog, From his 



home in the bog, 
home in the bog, 



189 



|d :d .t 



But 
But 



the 
the 



I 1 ' 


:1, 


.tl 


Id 


:r 


r 


B| 


: 




1- 


:s. 




toad 


he 


says 


nev 


er 


a 










He 




| toad 


he 


says nev 


er 


a 










He 




d 


:d 


.d |r 


:r 


.r 


m 


:r .m 


|f 


:m 


.r 


tries 


to 


be 


good, 


like 


the 


chil - 


dren 


who should 


Be 




tries 


to 


be 


good, 


like 


the 


chil - 


dren 


who should 


Be 





seen, 
seen, 



:t, .1, [s, :t, .r 

but nev-er be 

but nev-er be 



heard, 
heard. 



ZTbe Summer 1Rain. 

Key Efy 

Im .m :m .m |r .m :f 
i. Patter, patter,! comes the rain, 
2. See it coming | down the hill, 

1 .t :d'.s Im .f :s 



1 

I On the roof and 
JLeaping 



:d',s Im .f :s II 

roof and I on the ground, I I 
.laughing) bright and gay, |P 



s .f :m .s 

Patter, patter, 
Much I love the 

d'.Uis .f 

To the fields of 
Mak-ing bright each 



1 .1 :1 

on the street, 
gen-tie rain, 

m .f :s 

waving grain, 
tree and flow'r, 



r .r :r ,r 


A. T. C. 

m .1 :s 


) 


Tapping at my 
In a lit-tle 


window pane, 
sparkling rill, 


t 


11 .t :d'.f 

Patter, patter, 
(Pleasant words it 


m ,r :d 

all a - round, 
seems to say. 


1 


1 .s :f .1 

Making mus-ic 
Tapping at my 


t .t :t 

low and sweet, 
win-dow pane, 


1 


1 .t :d' .f 


m .r :d 


1! 


Welcome is the 
In the wood and 


summer rain, 
garden bower. 


1 



190 



THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 



tbe Hpple ZTtee* 



Key G. Beating twice. A. T. C. 


/ BI *.ro :ro S| in in 


n :r :r |r : : 


i. Under the ap - pie - tree 
2. On her brown a - pron and 
3. Gravely she sits with a 
4. " ZtosA," full of joy in the 
5. Sunshine and soft sum-mer 


spreading and thick, 
bright drooping head, 
se - ri - - ous look, 
bright sum-mer day, 
bree-zes a - stir, 


/ S| :r :r s, :r :m 


r :d :d |d :- :- \ 


Hap-py with on - ly a 
1 Showers of pink and white 
Mak-ing be - lieve she's a 
Zeal-ous - ly cha - ses the 
While she is bu - sy are 


pan and a stick, 
blos-soms are shed, 
real pas - try cook, 
ro - bins a - way, 
bu - sy with her, 


m :s :s m :s is 


d :t, id |r i- i- \ 


On the soft grass in the 
1' Tied to a branch that seems 
Sun - dry brown splash-es on 
Barks at the squir-rels or 
Cheeks ro - sy glow - ing and 


sha - dow that lies, 
made just for that, 
fore - head and eyes, 
snaps at the flies, 
bright sparkling eyes, 


s in id s :m :d 


r in :r |d : : 


Our lit - tie Fan - ny is 
Dan-ces and flut - ters her 
Show that our Fan - ny is 
All the while Fan - ny is 
Bring they to Fan - ny while 


mak-ing mud pies, 
lit - tie straw hat. 
mak-ing mud pies, 
mak-ing mud pies, 
mak-ing mud pies. 


J'm a Xtttlc 

Key F. 

f Si .d :d .m n .r :r 


3Bus 3Bee 

A. T. C. 

d ,t| :d .m |n .r : j 


1 i.I'm a lit-tle bu-sy bee, 
( 2. I'm a lit-tle bu-sy bee, 


Roaming in the clo-ver, 
In the mea-dows roaming, 


as, .d :d .m m .r :r 


s .r :r .m |r .d :- II 

All the mea-dows o - ver. 
Where the flowers are blooming. 1 1 


Here I go, There I go, 
All the day I'm bright and gay, 



Key F. 

d :m.r |d :t.d 



SECOND STEP SONGS. 

Cbilfcren's 

r :s. 



191 



1. Lit-tle chil - dren 

2. Do not vex or 



A. T. C. 

|d : Id :t,.d|r :d,r 



in their play, 
teaze a child, 



Al - ways kind and [ 
Do not make a J 



m :s |r : 

good should be, 
play-mate sad, 

| d :t,.d r :d.m 


s :r |m 

Ve - ry care 
But be lov 

r :t| |d 

love to see. 
heart feel glad. 


:m 

-ful, 
- ing, 


Then their sports we 
. Love will make each 



s :r 



m : 



too, each day, 
kind and mild, 



Iftp in tbe /l&orning 

Key G. C. M. S. Twice. 



, :(si) 


m :r :d 


r :d 


:t| 


d :- : 


- i. Up 

2. 


up in the 
Wake with a 


morn - - 
glad 


ing 
Good 


ear - - 
morn - 


\3- 


All through the day He 


will 


keep 


ps, 


m :r :d 


d :t, 


:d 


r : : 




{ And 


ear - ly to 


bed 


at 


night, 


To 
{ From 


sis - ters and 
sin and the 


bro - - 

temp - 


thers 
ter's 


dear, 
snare, 


f:(s,) 


m :r :d 


r :d 


:t| 


d :- : 




That is the 


way to 


be 


heal - - - 


And a 


thank - ful 


heart 


to 


Je - - - 


I So 


dear child re - 


mem - ber 


God 


sees 


:B, 


BI :d :n |r :d :t. 


d :- :- 


Who 


Hap-py good 
all night has 


chil - dren 
been 


and 
so 


bright, 
near. 


And 


is pre - sent 


ev' - - 


ry - 


where. 



A. T. C. 



rag," 
you, 



thy, 
sus, 
you, 



192 



THE TEACHERS HANDBOOK. 



ZTbis Map anb tbat Map. 


Key A. C. M. S. A. T. C. 


d :r .m 


d :BI .(si) 


d :t, ,d 


r :- .(r) ' 


i . This way and 


that way, 


Left foot and 


right, 


2. Bus - i - ly 


work - ing, We 


rest when we 


sing, And 


3. When work is 


end - ed, And 


play - time is 


o'er, Then 


r :d .r 


m :d ,(d) 


r :m .r 


d :- 


March-ing and 


sing - ing With 


fa - ces so 


bright. 


we are as 


hap - py As 


birds on the 


wing. 


we has-ten 


home-ward To 


pa - rents once 


more. 


Ube Bu0p Bee. 


Key D. C. M. S. A. T. C. 


s .m :s .m 1 m .r :r .(r) 


r .r :d .r 


m .s :- .(s) ! 


i. Tell me, little 1 bus-y bee, 


Where are you 


flying ? 


2. Pretty child, ll fly a - way, 


I'm a jol-ly 


rover, 


, 3. What I gather! is so sweet, My 


time it is my 


money, The . 


s .m :s .d 1 


d'.m :s .(s) 


s .r :r .n |r .d : 


Are you go - ing 


mar-ket-ing, 


Pretty playthings! buying ? 


But I ga-ther 


all the day From 


all the flow'rs and! clover. 


^ pretty playthings 


I bring home, My 


child they're combs of! honey. 



Key G. 

I d :d |s :m 

i. Now good night, now 
2. Lightly here day 
[ 3. One will watch us 

t :- |- : 

night, 
may, 
keep, 

1s.r :r.m |r :r 
One and all good night to 
Sing we now good night, good 
Now to all good night, good 


r.d:r.m|r :d 


ADAPTED. 

d.d:d.d s :d 

Now to all a kind good- 
Learning what of good we 
For He always watch doth 

r.d :r.m r :d \ 


all good night, 
af - ter day, 
while we sleep, 

r :r |s :m 

Teachers dear and 
All our hearts are 
Soon will dawn the 

d :- |- : 

you. 

night, 
night. 


schoolmates too, 
free and light, 
morn-ing light, J 



Cringan , Alexander T 

"~"~ 1 of 



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